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Let me sit down and write this for you. George Lucas recruited many conceptual designers, including Colin Cantwellwho worked on A Space Odysseyto conceptualize the initial spacecraft models; Alex Tavoularis to create the preliminary conceptual storyboard sketches of early scripts; and Ralph McQuarrie to visualize the characters, costumes, props and scenery.
After McQuarrie's drawings for Lucas's colleagues Hal Barwood and Matthew Robbins who were collaborating for a film caught his interest, Lucas met with McQuarrie to discuss his plans for the untitled space fantasy film he wanted to make. Two years later, after completing American GraffitiLucas approached McQuarrie and asked him if he would be interested "in doing something for Star Wars. Star Wars has no points of reference to Earth time or space, with which we are familiar, and it is not about the future but some galactic past or some extra-temporal present, it is a decidedly inhabited and used place where the hardware is taken for granted.
The film was ambitious as Lucas wanted to create fresh prop prototypes and sets based on McQuarrie's paintings that had never been realized before in science fiction films. He commissioned production designers John Barry and Roger Christianwho were working on the sets of the film Lucky Lady when Lucas first approached them, to work on the production sets.
Christian recounted in "George came to the set I was doing, it was an old salt factory design and he helped me shovel salt, just like two students in plaid shirts and sneakers. And we spoke and he looked at the set and couldn't believe it wasn't real.
Christian said that Lucas "didn't want anything [in Star Wars ] to stand out, he wanted it [to look] all real and used. And I said, 'Finally somebody's doing it the right way. Lucas described a "used future" concept to the production designers in which all devices, ships, and buildings to do with Tatooine or the Rebels looked aged and dirty,    as opposed to the sleeker designs of the Empire.
Lucas also wanted the spaceships to look "cobbled together, as opposed to a sleek monoshape. Nothing was new. George was going right against that. The designers started working with the director before Star Wars was approved by 20th Century-Fox. As they could not afford to dress the sets, Christian was forced to use unconventional methods and materials to achieve the desired look.
He suggested that Lucas use scrap in making the dressings, and the director agreed. I used to do it with models when I was a kid. I'd stick things on them and we'd make things look old. According to Christian, the Millennium Falcon set was the most difficult to build. Christian wanted the interior of the Falcon to look like that of a submarine. The garbage compactor set "was also pretty hard, because I knew I had actors in there and the walls had to come in, and they had to be in dirty water and I had to get stuff that would be light enough so it wouldn't hurt them but also not bobbing around.
The massive rebel hangar set was housed at a second sound stage at Shepperton Studios ; the stage was the largest in Europe at the time. Most of the visual effects used pioneering digital motion control photography developed by John Dykstra and his team, which created the illusion of size by employing small models and slowly moving cameras.
Lucas tried "to get a cohesive reality" for his feature. Since the film is a fairy taleas he had described, "I still wanted it to have an ethereal quality, yet be well composed and, also, have an alien look. To achieve this, he hired the British cinematographer Gilbert Taylor. He eventually withdrew to work on the Vincente Minnelli -directed A Matter of Time instead, which "really annoy[ed]" Kurtz. Strangelove and A Hard Day's Night both On his decision, Lucas said: "I thought they were good, eccentrically photographed pictures with a strong documentary flavor.
Taylor said that Lucas, who was consumed by the details of the complicated production, "avoided all meetings and contact with me from day one, so I read the extra-long script many times and made my own decisions as to how I would shoot the picture.
During production, Lucas and Taylor—whom Kurtz called "old-school" and "crotchety"  —had disputes over filming. His lighting suggestions were rejected by Taylor, who believed that Lucas was overstepping his boundaries by giving specific instructions, sometimes even moving lights and cameras himself. Taylor refused to use the soft-focus lenses and gauze Lucas wanted after Fox executives complained about the look.
Originally, Lucas envisioned the planet of Tatooinewhere much of the film would take place, as a jungle planet. Gary Kurtz traveled to the Philippines to scout locations; however, because of the idea of spending months filming in the jungle would make Lucas "itchy", the director refined his vision and made Tatooine a desert planet instead.
When principal photography began on March 22,in the Tunisian desert for the scenes on Tatooine, the project faced several problems. Taylor said, "you couldn't really see where the land ended and the sky began. It was all a gray mess, and the robots were just a blur. But George saw it differently, so we tried using nets and other diffusion. He asked to set up one shot on the robots with a mm, and the sand and sky just mushed together. I told him it wouldn't work, but he said that was the way he wanted to do the entire film, all diffused.
Filming began in Chott el Djeridwhile a construction crew in Tozeur took eight weeks to transform the desert into the desired setting. Kenny Bakerwho portrayed R2-D2, said: "I was incredibly grateful each time an [R2] would actually work right. Lucas chose Hotel Sidi Driss, which is larger than the typical underground dwellings, to shoot the interior of Luke's homestead. After two-and-a-half weeks of filming in Tunisia,  production moved to Elstree Studiosnear London, to film interior scenes.
Star Wars required the use of nine different sound stages simultaneously, which most studios couldn't accommodate. Most of the crew considered the project a "children's film", rarely took their work seriously, and often found it unintentionally humorous. Harrison Ford found it strange that "there's a princess with weird buns in her hair", and called Chewbacca a "giant in a monkey suit. This would result in "a 'cut-out' system of panel lighting", with quartz lamps that could be placed in the holes in the walls, ceiling and floors.
His idea was supported by the Fox studio, which agreed that "we couldn't have this ' black hole of Calcutta. Lucas commissioned computer programmer Larry Cuba to create the animated Death Star plans shown at the rebel base on Yavin 4.
This was written with the GRASS programming languageexported to a Vector General monitor and filmed on 35 mm to be rear-projected on the set. It is the only computer animation in the original version of the film.
Lucas selected the location as a potential filming site after seeing a poster of it hanging at a travel agency while he was filming in Britain. This inspired him to send a film crew to Guatemala in March to shoot scenes. While filming in Tikal, the crew paid locals with a six-pack of beer to watch over the camera equipment for several days. While shooting, Lucas rarely spoke to the actors, who believed that he expected too much of them while providing little direction.
His directions to the actors usually consisted of the words "faster" and "more intense". A lot of actors don't mind—they don't care, they just get on with it. But some actors really need a lot of pampering and a lot of feedback, and if they don't get it, they get paranoid that they might not be doing a good job.
Ladd offered Lucas some of the only support from the studio; he dealt with scrutiny from board members over the rising budget and complex screenplay drafts. Then, it was obvious that 8 million wasn't going to do it—they had approved 8 million. Kurtz said that "it came out to be like 9. Under the new Here Comes The War - Various - The Very Best Of Rock (1990-93) (CD), the project met the studio's deadline.
Lucas had to write around a scene featuring a human Jabba the Hutt, which was scrapped due to not being in focus, [ citation needed ] as well as budget and time constraints. During production, the cast attempted to make Lucas laugh or smile, as he often appeared depressed. At one point, the project became so demanding that Lucas was diagnosed with hypertension and exhaustion and was warned to reduce his stress level.
Moreover, Mark Hamill 's car accident left his face visibly scarred, which restricted re-shoots. Star Wars was originally slated for release on Christmas ; however, its production delays pushed the film's release to mid When Lucas watched Jympson's rough cut for the first time, he disliked what he saw.
Rinzler wrote that "Jympson's selection of takes was questionable, and he seemed to be having trouble doing match-cuts. He commented: "Unfortunately it didn't work out. It's very hard when you are hiring people to know if they are going to mesh with you and if you are going to get what you want.
In the end, I don't think he fully understood the movie and what I was trying to do. I shoot in a very peculiar way, in a documentary style, and it takes a lot of hard editing to make it work. Richard Chew considered the film to have been cut in a slow, by-the-book manner: scenes were played out in master shots that flowed into close-up coverage. He found that the pace was dictated by the actors instead of the cuts. Hirsch and Chew worked on two reels simultaneously. Jympson's original assembly contained a large amount of footage which differed from the final cut of the film, including several alternate takes and a number of scenes which were subsequently deleted to improve the narrative pace.
The most significant material cut was a series of scenes from the first part of the film which introduced Luke Skywalker. These early scenes, set in Anchorhead on the planet Tatooine, presented the audience with Luke's everyday life among his friends as it is affected by the space battle above the planet; they also introduced the character of Biggs DarklighterLuke's closest friend who departs to join the rebellion.
There were too many story lines to keep straight: the robots and the Princess, Vader, Luke. So we simplified it by taking out Luke and Biggs. As a result, the film was more "leisurely paced". After viewing a rough cut, Alan Ladd likened the early Anchorhead scenes to " American Graffiti in outer space. The company had spent half of its budget on four shots that Lucas deemed unacceptable. Lucas inspired ILM by editing together aerial dogfights from old war films, which enhanced the pacing of the scenes.
Sound designer Ben Burtt had created a library of sounds that Lucas referred to as an "organic soundtrack. The lightsaber sound effect was developed by Burtt as a combination of the hum of idling interlock motors in aged movie projectors and interference caused by a television set on a shieldless microphone.
Burtt discovered the latter accidentally as he was looking for a buzzing, sparking sound to add to the projector-motor hum. Lucas and Burtt created the robotic voice of R2-D2 by filtering their voices through an electronic synthesizer.
Darth Vader's breathing was achieved by Burtt breathing through the mask of a scuba regulator implanted with a microphone,  which began the idea of Vader having been a burn-victim, which was not the case during production. In FebruaryLucas screened an early cut of the film for Fox executives, several director friends, along with Roy Thomas and Howard Chaykin of Marvel Comics who were preparing a Star Wars comic book. The cut had a different crawl from the finished version and used Prowse's voice for Darth Vader.
It also lacked most special effects; hand-drawn arrows took the place of blaster beams, and when the Millennium Falcon fought TIE fightersthe film cut to footage of World War II dogfights. Spielberg, who said he was the only person in the audience to have enjoyed the film, believed that the lack of enthusiasm was due to the absence of finished special effects.
Lucas later said that the group was honest and seemed bemused by the film. In contrast, Ladd and the other studio executives loved the film; Gareth Wigan told Lucas: "This is the greatest film I've ever seen" and cried during the screening. Lucas found the experience shocking and rewarding, having never gained any approval from studio executives before.
Williams had worked with Spielberg on the film Jawsfor which he won an Academy Award. Lucas originally hired Williams to consult on music editing choices and to compose the source music for the music, telling Williams that he intends to use extant music. Therefore, Lucas assembled his favorite orchestral pieces for the soundtrack, until Williams convinced him that an original score would be unique and more unified, having viewed Lucas' music choices as a temp track.
However, a few of Williams' eventual pieces were influenced by the temp track: the "Main Title Theme" was inspired by the theme from the film Kings Rowscored by Erich Wolfgang Korngold ;  and the track "Dune Sea of Tatooine" drew from the soundtrack of Bicycle Thievesscored by Alessandro Cicognini. Lucas would later deny having ever conceived using extant music for the film.
The American Film Institute 's list of best film scores ranks the Star Wars soundtrack at number one. According to George Lucasdifferent concepts of the film were inspired by numerous sources, such as Beowulf and King Arthur for the origins of myth and religion.
The influence of The Hidden Fortress can be seen in the relationship between C-3PO and R2-D2, which evolved from the two bickering peasants, Tahei and Matashichi, and a Japanese family crest seen in the earlier film is similar to the Imperial Crest.
Star Wars also borrows heavily from another Kurosawa film, Yojimbo There are also thematic parallels, including the freedom fight by a rebel army against an empire, and politicians who meddle behind the scenes. Tatooine is similar to the desert planet of Arrakis from Frank Herbert 's Dune series.
Arrakis is the only known source of a longevity spice ; Star Wars makes references to spice in "the spice mines of Kessel", and a spice freighter. In passing, Uncle Owen and Aunt Beru are "moisture farmers"; in Dunedew collectors are used by Fremen to "provide a small but reliable source of water.
In addition, the sequence was partially inspired by the climax of the film Squadrondirected by Walter Grauman in which RAF de Havilland Mosquitos attack a German heavy water plant by flying down a narrow fjord to drop special bombs at a precise point, while avoiding anti-aircraft guns and German fighters.
Clips from both films were included in Lucas's temporary dogfight footage version of the sequence. The opening shot of Star Warsin which a detailed spaceship fills the screen overhead, is a reference to the scene introducing the interplanetary spacecraft Discovery One in Stanley Kubrick 's seminal film A Space Odyssey. The earlier big-budget science fiction film influenced the look of Star Wars in many other ways, including the use of EVA pods and hexagonal corridors.
The Death Star has a docking bay reminiscent of the one on the orbiting space station in While the film was in production, a logo was commissioned from Dan Perria title sequence designer who had worked on the titles for films such as The Exorcist and Taxi Driver This logo design was originally conceived to follow the same perspective as the film's opening crawl.
In the end, Perri's logo was not used for the film's opening title sequence, although it was used widely on pre-release print advertising and on cinema marquees. The logotype eventually selected for on-screen use originated in a promotional brochure that was distributed by Fox to cinema owners in This brochure was designed by Suzy Ricea young art director at the Los Angeles advertising agency Seiniger Advertising. On a visit to ILM in Van Nuys, Rice was instructed by Lucas to produce a logo that would intimidate the viewer, and he reportedly asked for the logo to appear "very fascist " in style.
Rice's response to her brief was to use an outlined, modified Helvetica Black. Lucas signed off on the brochure in between takes while filming inserts for the Mos Eisley Cantina scene. Gary Kurtz was impressed with Rice's logo and selected it over Perri's design for the film's opening titles, after modifying the letter W to flatten the pointed tips originally designed by Rice.
This finalized the design of one of the most recognizable logos in cinema design, although Rice's contribution was not credited in the film. For the US release in20th Century-Fox commissioned a promotional film poster from the advertising agency Smolen, Smith and Connolly. They used the freelance artist Tom Jung who was given the brief of "good over evil.
Some Fox executives considered this poster "too dark" and commissioned the Brothers Hildebrandta pair of well-known fantasy artiststo rework the poster for the UK release. Fox and Lucasfilm subsequently decided that they wanted to promote the new film with a less stylized and more realistic depiction of the lead characters.
Producer Gary Kurtz turned to the film poster artist Tom Chantrellwho was already well known for his prolific work for Hammer horror filmsand commissioned a new version. Charles Lippincott was the marketing director for Star Wars. As 20th Century-Fox gave little support for marketing beyond licensing T-shirts and posters, Lippincott was forced to look elsewhere. He secured deals with Marvel Comics for a comic book adaptation, and with Del Rey Books for a novelization.
A fan of science fiction, he used his contacts to promote the film at the San Diego Comic-Con and elsewhere within science-fiction fandom. While initially being released only in a limited theatrical run, Star Wars was an unprecedented success for 20th Century-Fox, soon becoming a blockbuster hit and expanding to a much wider release. It would eventually see many theatrical and home video re-releases. However, fewer than 40 theaters ordered the film to be shown.
In response, the studio demanded that theaters order Star Wars if they wanted the eagerly anticipated The Other Side of Midnight based on Sidney Sheldon 's novel by the same name. On opening day I I said, 'You know a lot about the film. Star Wars debuted on Wednesday, May 25,in fewer than 32 theaters, and eight more on Thursday and Friday. Kurtz said in"That would be laughable today. Spielberg disagreed, and believed Star Wars would be the bigger hit. Lucas proposed they trade 2. While Fox requested Mann's Chinese Theatrethe studio promised that the film needed only two weeks.
Having forgotten that the film would open that day,  he spent most of Wednesday in a sound studio in Los Angeles. When Lucas went out for lunch with Marcia, they encountered a long line of people along the sidewalks leading to Mann's Chinese Theatre, waiting to see Star Wars.
Francis Ford Coppolawho needed money to finish Apocalypse Nowsent a telegram to Lucas's hotel asking for funding. The film was a huge success for 20th Century-Fox, and was credited for reinvigorating the company. Within three weeks of the film's release, the studio's stock price had doubled to a record high. Although the film's cultural neutrality helped it to gain international success, Ladd became anxious during the premiere in Japan.
After the screening, the audience was silent, leading him to fear that the film would be unsuccessful. Ladd was reassured by his local contacts that this was a positive reaction considering that in Japan, silence was the greatest honor to a film, and the subsequent strong box office returns confirmed its popularity. After two weeks William Friedkin 's Sorcerer replaced Star Wars at Mann's Chinese Theatre because of contractual obligations; Mann Theatres moved the film to a less-prestigious location after quickly renovating it.
News reports Here Comes The War - Various - The Very Best Of Rock (1990-93) (CD) the film's popularity in America caused long lines to form at the two London theaters that first offered the film; it became available in 12 large cities in Januaryand other London theaters in February. Star Wars was re-released theatrically in, and with the subtitles Episode IV and A New Hope being added in The film was digitally remastered with some altered scenes in for a theatrical rerelease, dubbed the "Special Edition.
InLucas announced that all six previously released Star Wars films would be scanned and transferred to 3D for a theatrical release, but only 3D versions of the prequel trilogy were completed before the franchise was sold to Disney in The subtitles Episode IV and A New Hope were first published on a title page for the film's script in the book The Art of Star Wars[c] in what Kaminski calls "outright forgery", remarking that "the script itself wasn't even the authentic revised fourth draft, but more like a transcription of the finished film, edited and Here Comes The War - Various - The Very Best Of Rock (1990-93) (CD) with the real fourth draft.
The retronymic inclusion of subtitles brought the film into line with the introduction to its sequel, The Empire Strikes Backwhich was reconcieved during rewrites as "Episode V" and eventually released as such in This version of the film runs minutes. The Special Edition contains visual shots and scenes that were unachievable in the original release due to financial, technological, and time constraints; one such scene involves a meeting between Han Solo and Jabba the Hutt.
Star Wars required extensive recovery of misplaced footage and restoration of the whole film before Lucas's Special Edition modifications could be attempted.
It was discovered that in addition to the negative motion picture stocks commonly used on feature films, Lucas had also used Color Reversal Internegative CRI film, a reversal stock subsequently discontinued by Kodak. CRI proved to deteriorate faster than negative stocks did, although it theoretically was of higher quality, as it saved two generations an interpositive followed by an internegativewhere employed.
Because of this, the entire composited negative had to be disassembled, and the CRI portions cleaned separately from the negative portions. Once the cleaning was complete, the film was scanned into the computer for restoration. In many cases, entire scenes had to be reconstructed from their individual elements. Digital compositing technology allowed the restorers to correct for problems such as misalignment of mattes and "blue-spill. Bythis copy had been transferred to a 2K scan, Here Comes The War - Various - The Very Best Of Rock (1990-93) (CD) available to be viewed by appointment.
A full Super 8 version of the film was only made available in Italy as a pirate six-reel Here Comes The War - Various - The Very Best Of Rock (1990-93) (CD). The final issue of the original theatrical release pre-Special Edition to VHS format occurred inas part of "Last Chance to Own the Original" campaign, available as part of a trilogy set and as a standalone purchase.
The films were digitally restored and remastered, and more changes were made by Lucas. The trilogy was re-released on separate two-disc limited edition DVD sets from September 12 to December 31,and again in a limited edition tin box set on November 4, ;  the original versions of the films were added as bonus material.
The release was met with criticism as the unaltered versions were from the non- anamorphic LaserDisc masters and were not re-transferred using modern video standards. The transfer led to problems with colors and digital image jarring.
All six Star Wars films were released by 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment on Blu-ray Disc on September 16, in three different editions, with A New Hope available in both a box set of the original trilogy   and with all six films on Star Wars: The Complete Sagawhich includes nine discs and over 40 hours of special features. New changes were made to the films, provoking mixed responses.
Fox released A New Hope for digital download on April 10, Star Wars remains one of the most financially successful films of all time. Per Variety 's weekly box office charts, the film was number one at the US box office for its first three weeks. On July 21, while still in current release in 38 theaters in the U.
What makes the Star Wars experience unique, though, is that it happens on such an innocent and often funny level. It's usually violence that draws me so deeply into a movie—violence ranging from the psychological torment of a Bergman character to the mindless crunch of a shark's jaws. Maybe movies that scare us find the most direct route to our imaginations. But there's hardly any violence at all in Star Wars and even then it's presented as essentially bloodless swashbuckling.
Instead, there's entertainment so direct and simple that all of the complications of the modern movie seem to vaporize. The film was met with critical acclaim upon its release. In his review, Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called the film "an out-of-body experience," compared its special effects to those of A Space Odysseyand opined that the true strength of the film was its "pure narrative.
Murphy of Variety described the film as "magnificent" and said George Lucas had succeeded in his attempt to create the "biggest possible adventure fantasy" based on the serials and older action epics from his childhood.
When Star Wars opened in the UK, stating that Lucas's earlier films were better, Derek Malcolm of The Guardian concluded that it "plays enough games to satisfy the most sophisticated. The film continues to receive critical acclaim from modern critics. Its consensus states in summary, "A legendarily expansive and ambitious start to the sci-fi saga, George Lucas opened our eyes to the possibilities of blockbuster filmmaking and things have never been the same.
Gene Siskelwriting for the Chicago Tribune insaid, "What places it a sizable cut above the routine is its spectacular visual effects, the best since Stanley Kubrick 's I doubt that anyone will ever match it, though the imitations must already be on the drawing boards. The film garnered numerous accolades after its release. However, many bootleg copies exist, and the special has consequently become something of an underground legend. Star Wars and its ensuing film installments have been explicitly referenced and satirized across a wide range of media.
Hardware Warsreleased inwas one of the first fan films to parody Star Wars. A Nerdist article published in argues that " Star Wars is the most influential film of all time" partly on the basis that "if all copies Star Warstogether with Lucas, is the subject of the documentary film The People vs. George Lucas that details the issues of filmmaking and fanaticism pertaining to the film franchise and its creator.
The iconic weapon of choice of the Jedithe lightsaberwas voted as the most popular weapon in film history in a survey of approximately 2, film fans. Approximately mailboxes across the country were also designed to look like R2-D2. The film was one of the first films to link genres together to invent a new, high-concept genre for filmmakers to build upon. Jackson used the concept for his production of The Lord of the Rings trilogy to add a sense of realism and believability.
Some critics have blamed Star Warsas well as Jawsfor ruining Hollywood by shifting its focus from "sophisticated" films such as The GodfatherTaxi Driverand Annie Hall to films about spectacle and juvenile fantasy. They marched backward through the looking-glass. In an article intended for the cover of the issue, Time ' s Gerald Clarke wrote that Star Wars is "a grand and glorious film that may well be the smash hit ofand certainly is the best movie of the year so far.
The result is a remarkable confection: a subliminal history of the movies, wrapped in a riveting tale of suspense and adventure, ornamented with some of the most ingenious special effects ever contrived for film. American Film Institute . Star Wars was voted the second most popular film by Americans in a nationwide poll conducted by the market research firm, Harris Interactive.
Reputable publications also have included Star Wars in their best films lists: inEmpire magazine ranked Star Wars at No. Lucas's original screenplay was selected by the Writers Guild of America as the 68th greatest of all time. In addition to the film's multiple awards and nominations, Star Wars has also been recognized by the American Film Institute on several of its lists. Little Star Wars merchandise was available for several months after the film's debut, as only Kenner Products had accepted marketing director Charles Lippincott's licensing offers.
Kenner responded to the sudden demand for toys by selling boxed vouchers in its "empty box" Christmas campaign. Television commercials told children and parents that vouchers within a "Star Wars Early Bird Certificate Package" could be redeemed for four action figures between February and June The novelization of the film was published as Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker in Decembersix months before the film was released.
The credited author was George Lucas, but the book was revealed to have been ghostwritten by Alan Dean Foster. Marketing director Charles Lippincott secured the deal with Del Rey Books to publish the novelization in November By Februarya half million copies had been sold. Marvel Comics also adapted the film as the first six issues of its licensed Star Wars comic bookwith the first issue sold in April Roy Thomas was the writer and Howard Chaykin was the artist of the adaptation. Like the novelization, it contained certain elements, such as the scene with Luke and Biggs, that appeared in the screenplay but not in the finished film.
Lucasfilm adapted the story for a children's book-and-record set. Each page of the book contained a cropped frame from the movie with an abridged and condensed version of the story. The script was adapted by E. Jack Kaplan and Cheryl Gard. An audio CD boxed set of the Star Wars radio series was released incontaining the original radio drama along with the radio adaptations of the sequels, The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi.
A radio drama adaptation of the film was broadcast on the American National Public Radio network in It also featured scenes not seen in the final cut of the film, such as Luke Skywalker's observation of the space battle above Tatooine through binoculars, a skyhopper race, and Darth Vader's interrogation of Princess Leia. The radio version was originally considered to be part of the official Star Wars canon  but has Here Comes The War - Various - The Very Best Of Rock (1990-93) (CD) been supplanted by revised canonical narratives.
Star Wars was followed by The Empire Strikes Back in  and Return of the Jedi inwhich concludes the original film trilogy. Though financially successful, the films polarized critics and fans on their release for the storylines and some new characters. Retrospectives have highlighted that those for whom the prequels were their first Star Wars experience were more positive about the films than those who grew up on the original trilogy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see A New Hope disambiguation. For more uses of Star Wars, see Star Wars disambiguation. Theatrical release poster by Tom Jung. Release date. May 25, United States. Running time. See also: List of Star Wars filming locations. Main article: Star Wars soundtrack. See also: Star Wars sources and analogues. War films such as The Dam Busters and Squadronwhich used aircraft like the Avro Lancaster top and the Mosquito bottomrespectively, were inspirations for the battle sequences.
See also: Changes in Star Wars re-releases. See also: Cultural impact of Star Wars. AFI Years AFI's Years The trick is to pretend you've planned the whole thing out in advance. Hearnp. He also cited the fact that Chewbacca does not receive a medal at the end as "anti-Wookiee discrimination"; this issue would become contentious among fans. British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on January 27, Retrieved May 25, Archived from the original on July 9, Box Office Mojo.
Retrieved January 30, Archived from the original on March 6, Retrieved March 3, Los Angeles Times. Washington, D. September 19, Archived from the original on May 5, Retrieved April 22, National Film Preservation Board. Library of Congress.
Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved November 9, Archived from the original on May 8, Retrieved October 3, Retrieved July 26, Retrieved September 7, Retrieved August 11, The New York Times.
Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved August 6, Archived from the original on May 20, Archived from the original on January 11, September 29, Archived from the original on December 25, The Independent. New York Daily News. Good Housekeeping. December 7, Star Wars Aficionado Magazine. Archived from the original on February 26, Retrieved July 8, The Huffington Post. November 8, Archived from the original on May 12, Retrieved May 8, Retrieved May 9, Gawker Media.
Archived from the original on December 8, Retrieved December 5, The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 6, Retrieved December 6, May 23, Archived from the original on November 11, DMG Media. I monasteri continuarono la tradizione scritturale latina dell' Impero romano d'Occidente. La tradizione e lo stile dell' Impero romano predominavano ancora, ma gradualmente emerse la cultura del libro medievale.
I monaci irlandesi introdussero la spaziatura tra le parole nel VII secolo. L'innovazione fu poi adottata anche nei Paesi neolatini come l'Italiaanche se non divenne comune prima del XII secolo. Si ritiene che l'inserimento di spazi tra le parole abbia favorito il passaggio dalla lettura semi-vocalizzata a quella silenziosa.
Prima dell'invenzione e della diffusione del torchio tipograficoquasi tutti i libri venivano copiati a mano, il che li rendeva costosi e relativamente rari.
I piccoli monasteri di solito possedevano al massimo qualche decina di libri, forse qualche centinaio quelli di medie dimensioni. Il processo della produzione di un libro era lungo e laborioso. Infine, il libro veniva rilegato dal rilegatore. Esistono testi scritti in rosso o addirittura in oro, e diversi colori venivano utilizzati per le miniature.
A volte la pergamena era tutta di colore viola e il testo vi era scritto in oro o argento per esempio, il Codex Argenteus. Per tutto l'Alto Medioevo i libri furono copiati prevalentemente nei monasteri, uno alla volta. Il sistema venne gestito da corporazioni laiche di cartolaiche produssero sia materiale religioso che profano. Questi libri furono chiamati libri catenati.
Vedi illustrazione a margine. L' ebraismo ha mantenuto in vita l'arte dello scriba fino ad oggi. Anche gli arabi produssero e rilegarono libri durante il periodo medievale islamicosviluppando tecniche avanzate di calligrafia arabaminiatura e legatoria. Col metodo di controllo, solo "gli autori potevano autorizzare le copie, e questo veniva fatto in riunioni pubbliche, in cui il copista leggeva il testo ad alta voce in presenza dell'autore, il quale poi la certificava come precisa".
In xilografiaun'immagine a bassorilievo di una pagina intera veniva intagliata su tavolette di legno, inchiostrata e usata per stampare le copie di quella pagina. Questo metodo ebbe origine in Cinadurante la Dinastia Han prima del a. I monaci o altri che le scrivevano, venivano pagati profumatamente. I primi libri stampati, i singoli fogli e le immagini che furono creati prima del in Europa, sono noti come incunaboli.
Folio 14 recto del Vergilius romanus che contiene un ritratto dell'autore Virgilio. Da notare la libreria capsail leggio ed il testo scritto senza spazi in capitale rustica. Leggio con libri catenatiBiblioteca Malatestiana di Cesena. Incunabolo del XV secolo. Si noti la copertina lavorata, le borchie d'angolo e i morsetti.
Insegnamenti scelti di saggi buddistiil primo libro stampato con caratteri metallici mobili, Le macchine da stampa a vapore diventarono popolari nel XIX secolo. Queste macchine potevano stampare 1.
Le macchine tipografiche monotipo e linotipo furono introdotte verso la fine del XIX secolo. Hartla prima biblioteca di versioni elettroniche liberamente riproducibili di libri stampati. I libri a stampa sono prodotti stampando ciascuna imposizione tipografica su un foglio di carta. Le varie segnature vengono rilegate per ottenere il volume. L'apertura delle pagine, specialmente nelle edizioni in brossuraera di solito lasciata al lettore fino agli anni sessanta del XX secolomentre ora le segnature vengono rifilate direttamente dalla tipografia.
Nei libri antichi il formato dipende dal numero di piegature che il foglio subisce e, quindi, dal numero di carte e pagine stampate sul foglio. Le "carte di guardia", o risguardi, o sguardie, sono le carte di apertura e chiusura del libro vero e proprio, che collegano materialmente il corpo del libro alla coperta o legatura. Non facendo parte delle segnaturenon sono mai contati come pagine. Si chiama "controguardia" la carta che viene incollata su ciascun "contropiatto" la parte interna del "piatto" della coperta, permettendone il definitivo ancoraggio.
Le sguardie sono solitamente di carta diversa da quella dell'interno del volume e possono essere bianche, colorate o decorate con motivi di fantasia nei libri antichi erano marmorizzate. Il colophon o colofone, che chiude il volume, riporta le informazioni essenziali sullo stampatore e sul luogo e la data di stampa. In origine nei manoscritti era costituito dalla firma o subscriptio del copista o dello scriba, e riportava data, luogo e autore del testo; in seguito fu la formula conclusiva dei libri stampati nel XV e XVI secolo, che conteneva, talvolta in inchiostro rosso, il nome dello stampatore, luogo e data di stampa e l' insegna dell'editore.
Sopravvive ancor oggi, soprattutto con la dicitura Finito di stampare. Nel libro antico poteva essere rivestita di svariati materiali: pergamena, cuoio, tela, carta e costituita in legno o cartone. Poteva essere decorata con impressioni a secco o dorature.
Ciascuno dei due cartoni che costituiscono la copertina viene chiamato piatto. Nel XIX secolo la coperta acquista una prevalente funzione promozionale.
Ha caratterizzato a lungo l'editoria per l'infanzia e oggi, ricoperto da una "sovraccoperta", costituisce il tratto caratteristico delle edizioni maggiori. Le "alette" o "bandelle" comunemente dette "risvolti di copertina" sono le piegature interne della copertina o della sovraccoperta vedi infra.
Generalmente vengono utilizzate per una succinta introduzione al testo e per notizie biografiche essenziali sull'autore.
Di norma, riporta le indicazioni di titolo e autore. I libri con copertina cartonata in genere sono rivestiti da una "sovraccoperta". Oltre al taglio "superiore" o di "testa" vi sono il taglio esterno, detto "davanti" o "concavo"e il taglio inferiore, detto "piede".
I tagli possono essere al naturale, decorati o colorati in vario modo. In questi ultimi casi, si parla di "taglio colore", nel passato usati per distinguere i libri religiosi o di valore dalla restante produzione editoriale, utilizzando una spugna imbevuta di inchiostri all' anilina anni del XX secolo. Riporta solitamente titolo, autore, e editore del libro. Sovente riporta un motto. Assente nel libro antico. I primi incunaboli e manoscritti non avevano il frontespizio, ma si aprivano con una carta bianca con funzione protettiva.
Nel XVII secolo cede la parte decorativa all' antiporta e vi compaiono le indicazioni di carattere pubblicitario riferite all'editore, un tempo riservate al colophon. In epoca moderna, le illustrazioni e parte delle informazioni si sono trasferite sulla copertina o sulla sovraccoperta e altre informazioni nel verso del frontespizio. Nel libro antico i "nervi" sono i supporti di cucitura dei fascicoli.
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