One day when Jessie come to de house to let dat baby suck, Mr. Harvey think she gone little too long. He give her a hard lashin'. Dat was where all de cookin' done for all de niggers on de entire place.
Aunt Mary, she de head cook for de mars en all of de niggers too. All of de field hands durin' crop time et dey breakfast en dey dinners in de field.
I waited on de table for mars en sort er flunkyed 'round da house en Right To Left - Max Duley - This Weak Flesh (File) quarters en de barns, en too I was one of de young darkies what toted de buckets of grub to de field hands. Dat was where dem was put dat was sick. It was a place where dey was doctored on en cared for till dey either git well er die.
It was er sort er hospital like. De reason how come I not named Childress for my mars is 'cause my pappy, he named Clinton when mars git him from de Clintons up in Tennessee somewhere.
My mars, he was a good man jus' like I'm tellin' you. Mars had a young nigger woman named Malinda what got married to Charlie Voluntine dat belonged to Mr. Nat Voluntine dat had a place 'bout six miles from our place. In dem days iffen one darky married somebody offen de place where dey lived en what belonged to some other mars, dey didn't git to see one annudder very often, not more'n once a month anyway.
So Malinda, she got atter mars to buy Charlie. Sure 'nough he done that very thing so's dem darkies could live togedder. Dat was good in our mars. But I 'members well dat 'Uncle Peyton', he de one dat do all of de marryin' 'mongst de darkies.
Den too, he sent somepin like twenty er thirty niggers to de Confedrites in Georgia. I 'members it well de time dat he sent dem niggers.
They was all young uns, 'bout grown, en dey was skeered to death to be leavin' en goin' to de War. Dey didn't know en cose but what dey gwine make 'em fight. But mars tole 'em dat dey jus' gwine to work diggin' trenches en sich; but dey didn't want to go nohow en Jeff an' Randall, they runned off en come back home all de way from Georgia en mars let 'em stay.
Harvey Brown, was terrible cruel, en mean, en would beat de niggers up every chance he git, en you ask me how come it was dat de mars would have sich a mean man er working for him. Now I'se gwine to tell you de reason.
You know de truth is de light, boss, an' dis is de truth what I'se gwine to say. Mars, he in love with Mr. Yas suh, she was dat. She wasn't no kin er tall to Mr. Harvey Brown. Her name was Miss Markis, dats what it was. Mars had done willed dat chile er big part of his property and a whole gang of niggers. But de War, it come on en broke mars up, en all de darkies sot free, en atter dat, so I heered Mr. Clarke and Mrs. Clarke what de town of Clarksdale is named for, dey lived not far from our place.
I knowed dem well. Albert, one of mars' darkies, married Cindy, one of Mr. Clarke's women. General Forrest, I know you is heered of him. I speck he 'bout de bes' general in de War. He sure was a fine looking man en he wore a beard on he face. De general, he had a big plantation down dere in Coahoma County where he would come ever so offen.
A lot of times he would come to our place en take dinner wid ole mars, en I would be er waitin' on de table er takin' dem de toddies on de front gallery where dey talkin' 'bout day bizness. Dere was a heap of dat went on all de time an' 'course de wimmens, dey couldn't help deyselves and jus' had to put up wid it.
Da trouble wasn't from de mars of de wimmens I'se ever knowed of but from de overseers en de outside white folks. Of course all dat couldn't have been goin' on like it did without de mars knowin' it. Dey jus' bound to know dat it went on, but I'se never heered 'bout 'em doin' nothin' to stop it. It jus' was dat way, en dey 'lowed it without tryin' to stop all sich stuff as dat. You know dat niggers is bad 'bout talkin' 'mongst demselves 'bout sich en sich er goin' on, and some of mars' darkies, dey say dat Sam and Dick, what was two real light colored boys, dat us had was mars' chillun.
Dat was all talk. I nebber did believe it 'cause dey nebber even looked like mars en he nebber cared no more for dem dan any of the rest of de hands. Ben Martin and my mother and me belonged to the Slaughters. I was small then and didn't know what the war was about, but I remember seein' the Yankees and the Ku Klux. Martin had a plenty—he had bout a hundred head.
We was goin' to Texas to keep the Yankees from gettin' us. I member Mr. Gil Martin was just a young lad of a boy.
We got as far as Union County and I know we stopped there and stayed long enough to make two crops and then peace was declared so we cane back to Warren. I know they stood under a sycamore and two catawba trees and played. There was a perty big bunch of em. Us chillun was glad to hear it. I member just as well as if 'twas yesterday.
And another time they got three or four of the colored men and made em get a horse apiece and ride away with em bareback. Yankees was all ridin' iron gray horses, and lookin' just as mad.
Oh Lord, yes, they rid right up to the gate. All the horses was just alike—iron gray. Sho was perty horses. Them Yankees took everything Miss Mary had. Ben Martin. He paid some on it every year and when it was paid for Mr. Ben give him a deed to it. She never had but me, one. I went to school after the war and I member at night I'd be studyin' my lesson and rootin' potatoes and papa would tell us stories about the war.
I used to love to hear him on long winter evenings. My father had cows and he'd kill hogs and had a peach orchard, so we got along fine. Our white folks was always good to us. No suh, I ain't no kin to the other Cottons around here, so far as I knows.
My mother was Jane Hays, and she was owned by a master named Wilson. They call us 'Holiness,' but the real name is Pentecostal. I think no woman, white or black, has got any business wastin' time around the votin' polls.
Their place is at home raisin' a family. I hear em sometimes slinging out their 'damns' and it sure don't soun' right to me. I wish you well—but the gov'ment ain't gonna do nothing. It never has yit. I belong to Ed Cotton. Three sisters was sold and they give grandma and my sister in the trade. Grandma was so old she wasn't much account fer field work.
Mother left a son she never seen ag'in. Aunt Adeline's boy come too. They was put on a block but I can't recollect where it was.
If mother had a husband she never said nothing 'bout him. Right To Left - Max Duley - This Weak Flesh (File) muster been dead. Master Bowers sold him to Ed Cotton. He was sold three times. He had one scar on his shoulder. The patrollers hit him as he went over the fence down at Indian Bay.
He was a Guinea man. He was heavy set, not very tall. Generally he carried the lead row in the field. He was a good worker. They had to be quiet wid him to get him to work. He would run to the woods. He was a fast runner. He lived to be about a hundred years old. I took keer of him the last five years of his life.
Mother was seventy-one years old when she died. She was the mother of twenty-one children. He had a brother named Tom Lambert. Father never got no land at freedom. He got to own acres, a house on it, and some stock. We all worked and helped him to make it. He was a hard worker and a fast hand. I gets six dollars assistance from the Sociable Welfare and some little helpouts as I calls it—rice and potatoes and apples.
I got one boy fifty-five years old if he be living. I haven't seen him since He left and went to Chicago. I got a girl in St. I got a girl here in Helena. I jus' been up to see her. I had nine children. I been married twice. I lived with my first wife thirteen years and seven months. She died. I lived with my second wife forty years and some over—several weeks.
Once I got a awful scare. I was perched up on a post. The Yankees come up back of the house and to my back. I seen them. I yelled out, 'Yonder come Yankees.
Aunt Ruthie got me under my arms and took me to Miss Fannie Cotton. We lived in part of their house. Walter white and me slept together. Mother cooked. Aunt Ruthie was a field hand. Aunt Adeline must have been a field hand too. She hung herself on a black jack tree on the other side of the pool.
It was a pool for ducks and stock. Mother raised reared her boy. She told mother she would kill herself before she would be whooped. I never heard what she was to be whooped for. She thought she would be whooped. She took a rope and tied it to a limb and to her neck and then jumped. Her toes barely touched the ground. They buried her in the cemetery on the old Ed Cotton place. I never seen her buried. Aunt Ruthie's grave was the first open grave I ever seen.
Aunt Mary was papa's sister. She was the oldest. She wore long big skirts. I hung about her. Grandma raised me on a bottle so mother could nurse Walter white. There was something wrong wid Miss Fannie. We colored children et out of trays. They hewed them out of small logs. Seven or eight et together. We had our little cups. Grandma had a cup for my water. We et with spoons. It would hold a peck of something to eat.
I nursed my mother four weeks and then mama raised Walter and grandma raised me. Walter et out of our tray many and many a time. Mother had good teeth and she chewed for us both. Henry was younger than Walter.
They was the only two children Miss Fannie had. Grandma washed out our tray soon as ever we quit eating. She'd put the bread in, then pour the meat and vegetables over it. It was good. That was him. He may be dead now. Me and him caused Aunt Sue to get a whooping. They had a little pear tree down twix the house and the spring. Walter knocked one of the sugar pears off and cut it in halves. We et it. Ed asked 'bout it.
Walter told her Aunt Sue pulled it. She didn't come by the tree. He whooped her her declaring all the time she never pulled it nor never seen it. I was scared then to tell on Walter. I hope eat it. Aunt Sue had grown children.
They grunted around. They told papa to come out. He didn't go and he was ready to hurt them when they come in. He told them when he finished that crop they could have his room. He left that year.
They come in on me once before I married. I was at my girl's house. They wanted to be sure we married. The principal thing they was to see was that you didn't live in the house wid a woman till you be married. I wasn't married but I soon did marry her.
They scared us up some. Some folks won't work. Some do work awful hard. Young folks I'm speaking 'bout. Times is mighty fast now. Seems like they get faster and faster every way. I'll be eighty years old this May. I was born in I don't know whether it was in the Civil War or before the Civil War. I forget it. One night before I was born, she was at a meeting, and she said, 'Well, I'll have to go in, I feel something. And when she went in, I was born that same night.
She raised us right. We had to be in at sundown. If you didn't bring it in at sundown, she'd whip you,—whip you within an inch of your life. She worked at a loom. She worked so long and so often that once she went to sleep at the loom. Her master's boy saw her and told his mother. His mother told him to take a whip and wear her out.
He took a stick and went out to beat her awake. He beat my mother till she woke up. When she woke up, she took a pole out of the loom and beat him nearly to death with it. He hollered, 'Don't beat me no more, and I won't let 'em whip you. These black titties sucked you, and then you come out here to beat me. She went out and got on an old cow that she used to milk—Dolly, she called it. She rode away from the plantation, because she knew they would kill her if she stayed.
She got plumb away and stayed away. On account of that, I was raised by my mother. She went to Atchison, Kansas—rode all through them woods on that cow. Tore her clothes all off on those bushes. They called him 'Waw-hoo'che. Tom Polk was my mother's master too. It was Tom Polk's boy that my mother beat up. One time when somethin' he had did didn't suit Tom Polk—I don't know what it was—they cut sores on him that he died with.
Cut him with a raw-hide whip, you know. And then they took salt and rubbed it into the sores. They got scared and he was scared of them. He used to sleep in the woods. If you do, they will kill me. And he said there was going to be a war. The white people said they ought to take him out and beat him and make him hush his mouth. Because if they got such talk going 'round among the colored people, they wouldn't be able to do nothin' with them. Polk's wife's father, Old Man Woods, used to say that the niggers weren't goin' to be free.
He said that God had showed that to him. Mean Masters "Dr. Polk and his son, the one my mother beat up and left lying on the ground, were two mean men.
When the slaves didn't pick enough cotton for them, they would take them down the field, and turn up their clothes, till they was naked, and beat them nearly to death. While she did that weaving, she had children fast. One day, Tom Polk hit my mother. That was before she ran away. He hit her because she didn't pick the required amount of cotton.
When there was nothin' to do at the loom, mother had to go in the field, you know. I forget how much cotton they had to pick. I don't know how many times he hit her. I was small. I heard some one say, 'They got Clarisay Down, down there! And they had her down. She was stout, and they had dug a hole in the ground to put her belly in.
I never did get over that. Admittedly a poor student, he felt unappreciated and insecure, and after unruly behavior at school he was sent to Kearney Military Academy in Nebraska where he was usually in trouble; however, the academy succeeded in curbing some of his rebelliousness.
Abbott's father eventually botched his position and failed in several other ventures in the West, and the family returned East to Hamburg, New York in In high school George began to settle down somewhat as he discovered football and the drama society-he was the school's most prominent actor; but home life continued to be tense, for his parents had separated. While in high school, he impregnated a girl, who had an abortion. Left off the marriage hook, Abbott abandoned her. He continued to be an indifferent student and basically directionless, until a new, young teacher, Ednah Levis, encouraged him.
In fact, Abbott and she dated, and he resolved to turn his life around. He even changed his name. Previously he had been called Frances to differentiate him from his father; he now called himself George. While at Rochester, he began writing plays, one of which, Perfectly Harmless, was performed by the university drama club. This acceptance fostered his inclination to become a playwright, and during he enrolled in George Pierce Baker's playwriting course at Harvard University.
A play written for Baker's class, The Head of the Family, was later produced by the Harvard Dramatic Club; in addition, he won a one-act play contest sponsored by the Bijou Theatre in Boston with a script, Man in the Manhole, based on his summer job experiences at a steel mill.
He did not ftnish Baker's course but took a position as an assistant to the manager of the Bijou Theatre in In this capacity he both acted 2 Ibid. Abbott New York: Random House, These experiences whetted his ambition to be a playwright, and consequently, he left Boston for New York's larger theatre world. Abbott started his New York career in as an actor in The Misleading Lady, but afterwards with no work on the New York stage, he took whatever jobs he could get in vaudeville, touring productions, and movies as an extra.
He continued to write plays but found no acceptance for them, plus he was out of work for long stretches. In Ednah Levis and Abbott were married, and she supported him for years. They had one child, Judith an actress, producer and director herself. Ednah died in Inwith a highly unique recommendation, Abbott become an assistant casting director and all-around office boy for producer john Golden thereby gaining entry to New York's theatre world: George Abbott's career on Broadway began when a sixteen-year- old girl "glorified him"-she was the receptionist in the outer office of famed producer john Golden, and she called him on the phone one day panting: "There's the most beautiful, biggest blond young man I ever saw out here and he wants a job and I think you should hire him!
By the s Abbott was becoming a successful actor, getting good notices in plays such as LightingDuley touring production,Zander the GreatHell Bent for HeavenLazybonesand Processional He was serving an apprenticeship under directors George S.
Further, by Most reviews and articles were located in these files. Heywood Broun wrote, "One of the most engaging bits of acting in the play was done by George Abbott, who put over a kindly and sympathetic quality before he as much as spoke a line.
And later he strengthened it. George Abbott 25 play doctor on Broadway" 7 -a function he would continue throughout his career. Abbott's directing career was launched when he replaced co- author james Gleason he was cast in another play as director of their own play, The Fall Guy, in It was moderately successful, but Abbott struck it big the next year with Broadway, which he co-wrote and co-directed with Phillip Dunning, although Abbott was largely responsible for the staging.
After ten years of trying to write on his own, Abbott realized that with regard to playwriting he needed to take "a parasitical advantage of other people's ideas. His third production, Broadway performances, his first mega-hit inwas the on-e which made Abbott's reputation, aided by critic Brooks Atkinson praising the staging -as an example of the director's art.
The other hits were Chicago 1 72 inFour Walls inCoquette in ; and Gentlemen of the Press in Additionally, Pappa with 96 performances in just missed being a hit. Abbott became famous in the s-his most prolific decade with a total of twenty-nine productions-epitomizing the glamorous Broadway commercial director while cavorting with high society bohemians on Long Island and spending winters in Palm Beach playing tennis.
He continued to direct melodramas and farces and became his own producer. His first hit of the thirties was Twentieth Century in He added musicals to his repertoire with jumbo in Abbott was director of dialogue scenes-the first of five collaborations with Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart. Brother Rat in was one of Abbott's school comedies of which he staged several in the thirties and forties.
The farcical Room Service was another hit that same season. Of the four plays Abbott staged inonly What A Life was a 7 From caption under newspaper photo of Abbott, [n. Clipping files, Lincoln Center.
Abbott, From this point onward, Abbott began to direct more musicals than comedies or dramas. Abbott's phenomenal success returned in the s with ten of his eighteen productions becoming hits. The one hit play was Snafu in Musicals continued to be Abbott's forte in the s, and his fame mounted, surpassing that of the s. Abbott was 80 years old in but still energetic, and although he had at least one production each season during the s for a total of fourteen, only seven were hits: Tenderloin in ; Take Her, She's Mine in ; his last big musical hit, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum in ; his biggest non- musical hit, Never Too Late 1 in ; Fade Out-Fade In in ; How Now, Dow jones in ; and a revival of Three Men on a Horse 1 00 in In the s, Abbott had no success with his four productions, and in the s he directed three more with his only hit being the revival of On Your Toes in His final production was his own musical version of the Frankenstein story called Frankie 20 in when he was years old.
Abbott directed for the first time a regional theatre production, Life With Father, at the Seattle Repertory Theatreand a summer stock production of Damn Yankees in As late as he was helping with a revision of Damn Yankees for a Broadway revival. From on Abbott also directed films at various times but was dissatisfied with the medium because he found the slow pace of film making too tedious. Abbott was an imposing, tall 6'3"blond man who usually looked younger than his age and who dressed impeccably.
He has been called the Great Stone Face, a scout master, Abraham Lincoln, a hard man to know, a man of few words, basically shy, basically self-sufficient, basically in need of people, warm under a cold exterior, cold under a cold exterior, Aladdin, [and] a football coach.
Even among close associates he is simply, Mr. He was tight with money-"the group to which I belong might be called frugal" 11 -both personally and profess ionally as a producer. He was a popular figure, rich, a ladies man who loved social dancing he was a master of the rhumba and having fun with his cronies. Inat ninety-five, he married for the third time to Joy Velderama. Having lived without controversy and with his career having spanned nearly the entire century, triple threat man-writer, director, producer-George Abbott died in in Florida.
Abbott; Samuel L. Vallillo, eds. Seventeen of his productions ran for over performances and are considered mega-hits. While the large number of productions is attributable in part to the fact that he was often his own producer as were David Belasco and Arthur Hopkins-two other key directorshis endurance and success are clear in the statistics and in the important productions he staged.
From his first co-directing of The Fall Guy during the season, Abbott staged at least one production every season through except those in which he was directing films, and and in most seasons he directed at least two plays. In he staged five productions; and in two seasons, andhe directed four plays each season. Abbott's directorial perspective is clear in an analysis of key productions in his career.
From the beginning, Abbott's work exhibited the qualities later associated with the Abbott touch. These qualities were wedded in part to the style and tone of the scripts, which he often either co-wrote, adapted, or reworked, beginning with and exemplified in The Fall Guy and Broadway.
Breezy, idiomatic and melodramatic, these plays lent themselves to Abbott's sensibilities. The New York Post review of The Fall Guy suggests aspects of both the writing and staging that almost define Abbott's approach: It smacks of New York, catches the twist of speech, the pace of living and compresses them into a play of rowdy and breathing people.
Here are the real practitioners of the elusive wise crack and their doings. Here is a play as metropolitan as the museum or the sidewalks of Second Avenue. It has a dumbwaiter and clothes lines in the courtyard, an installment plan saxophone and a woman upstairs named Mrs. And it is all ten-minute comedy, which means, in the terms of those who bathe breakfast eggs, hard-boiled.
The two actors who wrote it have written it all over the stage. It comes violently and flagrantly to life every time it turns around, a tough guy among the dramas, hard, jaunty, self- assured. George Abbott 29 and action, and ample use of the stage space-all combined with a great deal of theatricality. Although the script may not stand the test of time, Broadway is a seminal production in that it pinpointed the art of the director in a new way.
The play deals with the goings-on backstage at a New York nightclub and involves performers and gangsters-a melodrama which includes a chorine shooting a gangster who killed her boyfriend.
The production was raucous and fast paced. Co-author Philip Dunning wrote that the production had over entrances and exits. Characters ran on and off, doors slammed, guns went off, and a jazz band played. The pay telephone rings with a real twenty- five cent sound when they slip a real quarter in it. The dancers have a resin box for their soles, and some of them remember to cross themselves just as some of them should before prancing out for their turns.
Not even a Belasco could scrape more correct local color off the palette of the everyday. By defining the important characters completely, especially through the back-stage scenes, the authors, who are also the directors, give their play the illusion of motion even when it is 15 Philip Dunning, "Dunni ng Wrote ' Broadway' to Show up Movies," New York Herald Tribune, 2 january 7, [n.
Zolotow wrote that Broadway had exits and entrances, much more than the usual 20 or so. Gabriel, [n. Atkinson noted the playwright usually provided the drama in a play, but in this case Atkinson stressed the importance of the director: "Using the theatre as an instrument of expression, stimulating the ear as well as the eye, the directors thus create drama in the full meaning of the word.
They bring us the fire from the sacred mountains. The American musical has a long and involved hi story, representing as it does an amalgam of many diverse forms and influences including ballad operas, pantomime, masques, burlesques, comic operas and operettas among others.
It is not clear if Atkinson recognizes that he in part was responsible for that exaltation. George Abbott 31 as tap and modern so as to be a unique creation of its own. As such it had become expressive in a manner reflective of the total theatre concepts of Adolphe Appia.
Appia developed his view from Ri chard Wagner's idea of gesamstkunstwerk, which represented a concept of total theatre, of a unified art work. Wagner posed an ideal of theatrical synthesis but saw that a cohesive theatrical event could not be shaped from arts that were autonomous in function. In Art Work of the Future, Wagner wrote that in drama each separate art can only bare its utmost secret Right To Left - Max Duley - This Weak Flesh (File) their common public through a mutual padeying with the other arts; for the purpose of each separate branch of art can only be fully attained by the reciprocal agreement and co-operation of all the branches in their common messageY Wagner's idea of gesamstkunstwerk implied not only multiple elements of expression but an amalgamation of these elements into a simple, unified whole.
The interior dramatic action was to be the controlling factor of multi-theatrical expressionY In Wagner's notion, music became the chief instrument of transaction of an inner reality, the chief poetic expression of the artist's will.
Adolphe Appia, mostly known for his reforms in stage design, expanded on Wagner's idea with a more thorough idea of synthesis for the musical form in his writings Music and the Art of the Theatre and The Work of the Living Art: A Theory of Theatre In his efforts to reform staging of Wagnerian opera and through collaboration with Emile Jacques-Dal croze and his system of Eurhythmics, Appia derived a doctrine with a system for achieving organic synthesis of musical form.
Agreeing with Wagner, Appia "determined that the dramatic idea control s the expression of the musical and dramatic elements defined in the text, and that the total production is the interpretative agent of that dramati c idea. New York: Broude Brothers, I take this discussi on of Wagner and Appia from her analysis. By means of the spoken word, [the dramatist] endows it with a practical dramatic form and composes the poetic-musical text, the score; this text imposes an already living role on the actor, a role he has now only to take on.
The proportions of this role determine the form of the setting through three-dimensionality the point of contact between the living actor and the inanimate setting ; the nature and extent of the three dimensionality determine the spatial arrangement of the setting which in turn controls the lighting and painted sceneryY Appia established a hierarchy for the "word-tone drama" and systematized the notion of theatrical synthesis.
Lynn Mahler Shelton formulates his principles as follows: 1 Movement creates forms in space, and time is created by the successive movements of these forms. In music, which creates time, space is created by rhythms-the duration of sound-which can then determine the range of the movement.
Therefore, movement expresses time in space. According to Appia, movement then becomes " the determining and conciliating principle which can so regulate the union of the several art forms that they will converge, as it were, at a given point and a given time in dramatic art" Living Art, 8 2 The moving body of the actor not only links space and time in music, but because of its plasticity, the living form of the performer connects the spatial arts of architecture-stage space-to the inner dramatic action which is determined by music.
Corrigan and Mary Douglas Dirks, trans. George Abbott 33 musical at mid-twentieth century. As a top director of this form, George Abbott brought to it a basic theatricality that expressed the Appian idea of synthesis. Musical theatre came of age, reaching a mature and indigenous form, during Abbott's heyday as a director. Kern and Oscar Hammerstein made a further jump in integration with the production of Show Boat in Essentially, the reforms in these musicals meant that the musical was now motivated by dramatic action and plot line-changes that led to the book Right To Left - Max Duley - This Weak Flesh (File).
Hammerstein and his partner Richard Rodgers furthered. In Elie Siegmeister stated that, the best musicals are highly polished theatre pieces in which a credible and sometimes first-rate drama is presented through lyrics, music, dialogue. The skillful presentation of story and character, the subtle blending of choreography, decor, orchestration, lighting, and costumes, often make of the modern musical a piece of theatrical entertainment, sometimes even of artY Siegmeister's assessment of the qualities that formed the basis for the American musical reflects the Appian synthesis of total theatre.
George Abbott's contribution to this synthesis came from his talent for creating authenticity, pacing, vitality, and comedy to musicals, but most of all, he brought an idea of dramatic action as the key to structure and consequently to form.
Abbott became master of the book musical and helped move musical comedy from earlier precedents of revue, operetta, and burlesque as well as the sentimentalism of the George M. Cohan musicals, or in essence, from the theme driven or music-dominated musical to the action-motivated musical play. He also furthered efforts at blending the elements of text, music, movement and song into an expressive, coherent, unified whole.
In fact, his earliest efforts predated Oklahoma! This musical comedy about a performer who gets involved with some gangsters was noteworthy because it featured choreography first use of that term in a playbill by George Balanchine and was a turning point in the use of dance in musical comedy as Balanchine's dances were essential aspects of the plot.
The performer had to dance and keep dancing until the police arrived so that the gangsters would not kill him. The dance was an integral aspect of the plot, and " Slaughter" gave the production " the fillip of a good George Abbott thrill" while "bringing something new with it, an attempt to give musical comedy a form more closely approximating what is known as art than it has had before This is something new, pointed and of a great freshness.
This was a hard-boiled, melodramatic, satiric musical whi ch followed Showboat in attempting to deal with serious subject matter. Once again, it was a real collaboration, merging the book, music, lyrics and movement into a whole.
Originality was more than in flower; it was in full bloom. George Abbott 35 the milieu of the play from his work on Broadway and gave Pal joey expert direction: Mr. Abbott has staged the musical comedy with a seeming inside knowledge of the Grade C " clubs" that provide Mr. O'Hara with his background. He burlesques the managers, the hangers-on, the waiters, the dances and the songs that are seen and heard in a joint that is bound to be called Chez Joey.
His costuming is in humorous keeping with the atmosphere. It is star spangled, gaudy and abbreviated. In prai sing the dancing of Gene Kelly Uoeywho was launched into stardom with this production, New York Times dance critic John Martin recognized the contributions of Abbott as no drama critic did, and he reflected upon the uniqueness of the production in regard to its use of dance To be sure, Kelly has not and could not possibly have done this single-handed, for George Abbott's production is all keyed to the same pitch.
Obviously there has been a strong guiding hand that has succeeded in molding music and lyrics, settings and costumes, dancing and acting, into a hilarious instrument for translating into stage terms all the implications that John O' Hara put into the original sketches of Joey, " the perfect heel ," which he used to write for The New Yorker. The routines themselves are nicely characterized and worked into the scheme of the whole But some songs such as "Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered" do flow dramatically out of the action as Vera, the society woman, admits she is foolish for falling for a man like Joey.
The ballet is in effect a representation of Joey's mental images and state of mind. Clearly, the Abbott touch, utilizing all aspects of production in expressive ways, was an important element in unifying the mature book musical as its form continued to evolve at mid-century.
Another significant step in Abbott's contributions occurred with the production of On the Town, a musical based on jerome Robbins's ballet Fancy Free, with music by Leonard Bernstein and book by Betty Comden and Adolph Green.
The story line involves the romantic escapades of three sailors on twenty-four hour leave in New York City. In the opinion of one reviewer, "On the Town is a perfect example of what a well-knit fusion of the respectable arts can provide for the theatre:" Everything about it is right. It is fast and it is gay, it takes neither itself nor the world too seriously, it has wit.
Its dances are well paced, its players are a pleasure to see, and its music and background are both fitting and excellent. On The Town even has a literate book, which for once instead of stopping the action dead speeds it merrily on its way. But the charm of On The Town is not so much in the individual performances as in the whole.
The chorus and ballet numbers, many of them done with an edge of satire, are easy and graceful, and down in the pit and up on the stage everything is in order. It is an adult musical show and a 35 Ibid. George Abbott 37 remarkabl y good one. In fact, he thought that On the Town should put "the Broadway of tasteless lavishness, of stale gags and stupid smut, of tired formulas and meaningless furbelows-in its place. For On the Town pumps energy and excitement and humor into the musical field; it spurns formulas; indeed it makes fun of them.
Here and there perhaps it does. But never for more than moments, for the strong hand that was needed to tie things together for Broadway was found in George Abbott. With his professional savvy and his own famous feeling for youth and pace, Abbott keeps everything spinning without snarls or confusion. These qualities were to serve him very well in his most successful productions in the s, The Pajama Came and Damn Yankees.
With The Pajama Came co-directed with Jerome Robbins inAbbott " developed a new style of Shirt-sleeved American musical-again with fresh young talent-and pulled off a whale of a hit. At the center was a romance between the manager of the plant and the union head of the grievance committee.
Abbott molded this piece with his usual adroitness for pace, character, comedy and, most importantly, collaboration. The "fast, funny" dance numbers by Bob Fosse "neatly dovetailed into a hard- driving book," 41 either furthering the action or revealing character: "It is in its dancing that The Pajama Game is its most enlivening.
There is no pretentiousness in the choreography of Bob Fosse and jerome Robbins, and they maintain the pseudorealistic mood of the story with brightness and imagination.
Abbott and Jerome Robbins, both of whom like motion on the stage. That may account for the lightness and friskiness of the performance. And that may also help explain why Bob Fosse's ballets and improvised dance turns seem to come so spontaneously out of the story. And I sure would like to but-oh, gee.
Where will you take me? Sid: I know a wonderful joint. The by-now-obl igatory dream ballet in Pajama Game stems from a quarrel between Gladys and her jealous boyfriend, Hines, who says "I can see what marriage with Gladys would be like.
Subsequent references cited parenthetically in the text. George Abbott 39 Hernando's Hideaway disappear and the lights come up on the imagined bedroom of Hines and Gladys future home, and " The jealousy Ballet" begins A little less credible perhaps is the "Steam Heat Number," a show stopper dance number which has nothing to do with the story line; however, it is presented as part of the entertainment at a union meeting, so that it does give the illusion of flowing out of the action 1 Abbott basically staged "shows," but nevertheless he insisted on believability created from an emphasis on the dramatic action.
His production Damn Yankees in dealt with Joe Boyd, a middle aged man who bargains his soul with the devil in order to play baseball for the Washington Senators and beat the New York Yankees for the pennant.
The structure of Damn Yankees is similar to The Pajama Came, but in some respects is not as well integrated. The romance plot line is not as dramatically important here, consisting of Joe's affection for his wife, which eventually causes him to want to return to his home and give up baseball. His song, "Goodbye, Old Girl " is a revelation of his feelings as he is about to leave his wife.
The most famous number in the play, "Whatever Lola Wants, " 91 is a show stopper but is integrated into the action as the devil 's hand-maiden tries to seduce joe to keep his bargain. However, "Who' s Got the Pain," 1 08 -a dance highlighting star Gwen Verdon Lol a -has nothing to do with the plot and appears as part of the story only as an entertainment at a celebration honoring joe, a Ia " Steam Heat.
For all that, Damn Yankees "provides gay and unflagging entertainment, fully representative of the kind of theatre that Abbott has been di shing up for more than thirty years. Everything is fluid.
Everything moves. Abbott did not start rehearsals with blocking mapped out. He preferred to have the actors sit and read the script for a few days-a practice he learned from Guthrie McCiintic-in order to give himself and the cast a chance to feel how they would be most effective in the parts.
Then the actors got on their feet and worked out the blocking, which was a matter of constant readjustment. Abbott preferred to work out positioning and movement prior to memorization because he thought actors learned lines better by knowing where they were when they said them.
Then he often left the actors alone with the stage manager while they learned the lines. Dancers and chorus members worked separately with their directors. When he returned, the pacing, interpretation, and mechanics of the production were worked out in detail, and the various parts-dances, scenes, musical numbers- brought together. Abbott remained seated. His concentration on the actors was total. Not a syllable got past him. He made terse comments. Very instructive.
Shelton, "Mr. George Abbott Or "Excuse me, we'll have a yellow pad, so that's your motive for going over there. Or "You're bored with her; sit down. To her, to her.
Say ' Hello,' then walk forward on your line. You' re like a salesman. A Buick salesman. Let's get the sarcasm in it. Abbott would change his position. He would jump up to demonstrate a posture, a gesture, a walk, a way of avoiding a collision between actors. Yet that is precisely what Obamacare does: It forces Americans without health insurance to purchase coverage.
Such a requirement is unprecedented and unconstitutional. It carries no weight. If you do use them on fixed disks, allocate separate subdirectories… Public domain or shareware software should never be placed in the root directory. And without a respectable navy — alas, America! He wills and delights in things in different ways so that approval and disapproval can coexist without being contradictory, without canceling each other out.
I am making the case here for infinite complexity. The image of one depends on the image of another. It is not a zero-sum game. To put it another way, size is a supreme regulator of all matters biological. No living entity can evolve or develop without taking size into consideration. Much more than that, size is a prime mover in evolution.
Millions of Americans are at risk of going without the flu vaccine this year because the administration failed to act proactively to ensure an adequate supply. There is simply no excuse for this. We should challenge almost everything that dictators, presidents and officials say. Without that possibility, there is no empirical principle capable of deciding between different arguments and theories.
I have written likewise and repeat my words that reforms, to be beneficial, must come from above, that those which come from below are irregularly gained and uncertain. Without it, our faith is meaningless. Ever since I got the Millennium Falcon for Christmas in And I still have it, in perfect condition, just without the box… but I still play with it! On the contrary, it would be a safer world, as I will show later.
It has to stem from a grounded experience. It was made apparently without knowledge or understanding of the nature of his movement or how widespread it is. And communities do not work unless they are regulated by etiquette.
On the other hand, it beats the heck out of failure. We are overusing it; we are misusing it. And so we gaze obediently at what we are told to gaze at, without exactly asking why.
So it becomes just a scripted show, but without actors. One cannot be achieved without the other. Louis Bush Swisher died from the complications of a brain aneurysm that burst without warning one sunny Sunday morning less than 40 years ago.
I went without William, so I was rather apprehensive about that. Now we tour with six people in a van. The point is to not hate ourselves for having them. Actually, I could be regarded as a threat. Plus, guys love it. My label actually went bankrupt, and I was left without a home. People would be very boring without them. It has all those all-Americans. We put on a good show every week — one that families could all watch together without offending anyone.
I copied without permission. Roosevelt was among a handful of leaders who realized the U. I made my own videos.
I pick my producers. Nothing goes out without my permission. Oracle 12c makes all your Oracle applications multitenant applications without you having to make any changes whatsoever to your applications. We saw Apple with Steve Jobs. We saw Apple without Steve Jobs.
I just walked with him as though he were really there and not a spirit just floating around. But buying bonds without differentiation and without limits would be very problematic.
They never sought our permission. Our catalog of music simply became available as free downloads on the Napster system.
My writing is mostly a lot of questions without answers. I was very little when I started in 5H: I was Viruses will simply recirculate, and perhaps undergo mutations or changes that render vaccines useless, passing through the unprotected populations of the planet.
In Korea, we shoot day and night without much break. We went on a fabulous honeymoon to Europe, and I was able to see and do everything I wanted without worrying about taking it easy.
The two are intertwined. You just have to be noticed, but the art is in getting noticed naturally, without screaming or without tricks. Without the capital, there is no -ism. Without the lessons I learned in gymnastics, I would be crushed. One cannot dream oneself into either usefulness or happiness. There would almost certainly have been no British victory at Waterloo, for instance, without the assistance of Prussia. I dwell a lot on domestic danger. To be suspicious all the time without coming to a conclusion is the defect.
We have a lot of parallel activities that can increase revenues without being obliged to produce more cars. But peace — lasting peace — cannot be secured without the support of all. If it is really going to work, the relationship has got to be almost incestuous. They know how to telegraph love for one another without throwing their arms around one another.
And so the utility needs to be paid for the services it provides. Individuals only. Who have property that can be taxed? Who can give their consent to be taxed? Who are ever taxed without their consent? Who, then, are robbed, if taxed without their consent? There is no equivalent of Al-Qaeda without the terrorism. I was a vegan. I was raised without religion. I was just the weirdest kid in this small town, so I got made fun of a lot for it.
But all other pleasures and possessions pale into nothingness before service which is rendered in a spirit of joy. One finds one can do without it completely.
Particularly when they have an imperative to get information out of a captive immediately. Things pop out without warning. Everything has to be done by hand. That is most important. That is the crucial element. Without it, that is not couture anymore. For only a war waged for revenge or defense can be just.
Beliefs, conventions, history do the work. Every journalist is a moralist. I have a strong political conscience. Without impulses, we could take no part in social life; on the other hand, without inhibitions, we could not correct, direct, and utilize our impulses. That means neither stifling yourself or spraying your immediate vicinity. The first hiccup is an exception.
I prefer just to react without having a lot of dialogue. They would be scarce, sir, almighty scarce. Especially as I get older. Except love. The ideal mission was getting in and getting out without anyone ever knowing we were there. He who accepts evil without protesting against it is really cooperating with it. It is a sword that heals. We cannot become more prosperous without the living systems upon which our prosperity depends.
But my greatest extravagance, I suppose, is roses. I have to give it a hundred percent. I felt liberated from the static of Facebook and Twitter but feared that I had missed some email or call that someone had died. Without stable shelter, it all falls apart. It is not about pixels versus print. It was quite surprising to us all, because all of us had spent probably the previous five to ten years without it.
So it was quite overwhelming. Overwhelming and humbling. Je parle francais. And when I think about being a Canadian, speaking French is part of it. He plays instruments, many instruments. He can make his own record without having a fleet of computer operators onboard. Ever since slavery was eliminated, they have been trying to keep it as close to slavery as they can without violating the slave laws.
I mean, even McCain was a critic of ethanol, but when he got to Iowa, he was singing a different tune. Moreover, without the railways, India would not have been connected and could not have become one country. I have found friends and Right To Left - Max Duley - This Weak Flesh (File) experiences that I would not want to be without.
Where is the concrete proof that I received something of value? But after a while, I figured out that although Flash got the girl and all the accolades, it was really Dr.
Zarkov who made the series work. Without Dr. Zarkov, there could be no Flash Gordon. Senate that the U. There are billions and billions of dollars at stake here. Again, this is about mortgaging the future of unborn generations of Americans.
It is required for progression. Each one of the attacks will deal 2x damage, so don't get worried if you see only The first attack will deal and damage, depending which part of the Katana hit Giant Lord. The second one will deal and And the third one will most likely deal and And the best part of all is, this is done with NON infused weapon, which means if you decide to buff both hands, your 3-hit combo will be above 4 Tested on both Scholar and vanilla version.
Just brutal. I feel so bad fighting this guy. He had a competely justified cause for war, unlike everyone else. Then they drag him into the dungeons, impale with a column and left to rot.
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