Gli autori cristiani potrebbero anche aver voluto distinguere i loro scritti dai testi pagani scritti su rotoli. La storia del libro continua a svilupparsi con la graduale transizione dal rotolo al codexspostandosi dal Vicino Oriente del II - II millennio a.
Fino al II secolo d. All'arrivo del Medioevocirca mezzo millennio dopo, i codici - di foggia e costruzione in tutto simili al libro moderno - rimpiazzarono il rotolo e furono composti principalmente di pergamena.
Quattro son troppi? Anche nei suoi distici, Marziale continua a citare il codex: un anno prima del suddetto, una raccolta di distici viene pubblicata con lo scopo di accompagnare donativi. Questa mole composta da numerosi fogli contiene quindici libri poetici del Nasone». Dal II secolo a.
Nel mondo antico non godette di molta fortuna a causa del prezzo elevato rispetto a quello del papiro. Il libro in forma di rotolo consisteva in fogli preparati da fibre di papiro phylire disposte in uno strato orizzontale lo strato che poi riceveva la scrittura sovrapposto ad uno strato verticale la faccia opposta. La scrittura era effettuata su colonne, generalmente sul lato del papiro che presentava le fibre orizzontali. Non si hanno molte testimonianze sui rotoli di pergamena tuttavia la loro forma era simile a quella dei libri in papiro.
Gli inchiostri neri utilizzati erano a base di nerofumo e gomma arabica. Dal II secolo d. La vecchia forma libraria a rotolo scompare in ambito librario.
In forma notevolmente differente permane invece in ambito archivistico. Questo mezzo, permettendo l'accelerazione della produzione delle copie di testi contribuisce alla diffusione del libro e della cultura.
Altri suoi distici rivelano che tra i regali fatti da Marziale c'erano copie di Virgiliodi Cicerone e Livio. Le parole di Marziale danno la distinta impressione che tali edizioni fossero qualcosa di recentemente introdotto.
Sono stati rinvenuti "taccuini" contenenti fino a dieci tavolette. Nel tempo, furono anche disponibili modelli di lusso fatti con tavolette di avorio invece che di legno.
Ai romani va il merito di aver compiuto questo passo essenziale, e devono averlo fatto alcuni decenni prima della fine del I secolo d.
Il grande vantaggio che offrivano rispetto ai rolli era la capienza, vantaggio che sorgeva dal fatto che la facciata esterna del rotolo era lasciata in bianco, vuota. Il codice invece aveva scritte entrambe le facciate di ogni pagina, come in un libro moderno. La prima pagina porta il volto del poeta.
I codici di cui parlava erano fatti di pergamena ; nei distici che accompagnavano il regalo di una copia di Omeroper esempio, Marziale la descrive come fatta di "cuoio con molte pieghe". Ma copie erano anche fatte di fogli di papiro. Quando i greci ed i romani disponevano solo del rotolo per scrivere libri, si preferiva usare il papiro piuttosto che la pergamena. I ritrovamenti egiziani ci permettono di tracciare il graduale rimpiazzo del rotolo da parte del codice.
Fece la sua comparsa in Egitto non molto dopo il tempo di Marziale, nel II secolo d. Il suo debutto fu modesto. A tutt'oggi sono stati rinvenuti 1. Verso il d. I ritrovamenti egiziani gettano luce anche sulla transizione del codex dal papiro alla pergamena. Sebbene gli undici codici della Bibbia datati in quel secolo fossero papiracei, esistono circa 18 codici dello stesso secolo con scritti pagani e quattro di questi sono in pergamena.
Non ne scegliemmo alcuno, ma ne raccogliemmo altri otto per i quali gli diedi dracme in conto. Il codex tanto apprezzato da Marziale aveva quindi fatto molta strada da Roma. Nel terzo secolo, LP tali codici divennero alquanto diffusi, quelli di pergamena iniziarono ad essere popolari.
In breve, anche in Egittola fonte mondiale del papiroil codice di pergamena occupava una notevole quota di mercato. Sono tutti di pergamena, edizioni eleganti, scritti in elaborata calligrafia su sottili fogli di pergamena. Per tali edizioni di lusso il papiro era certamente inadatto. In almeno un'area, la giurisprudenza romanail codex di pergamena veniva prodotto sia in edizioni economiche che in quelle di lusso.
La caduta dell'Impero romano nel V secolo d. Il papiro divenne difficile da reperire a causa della mancanza di contatti con l' Antico Egitto e la pergamenache per secoli era stata tenuta in secondo piano, divenne il materiale di scrittura principale. I monasteri continuarono la tradizione scritturale latina dell' Impero romano d'Occidente.
La tradizione e lo stile dell' Impero romano predominavano ancora, ma gradualmente emerse la cultura del libro medievale. I monaci irlandesi introdussero la spaziatura tra le parole nel VII secolo. The song reached the final at Sanremo and, as recorded by Donaggio, reached No. Dusty Springfield, who participated at the Sanremo Festival, was in the audience when Donaggio and Miller performed "Io che non vivo senza te " and, although she did not know the meaning of the lyrics, the song moved Springfield to tears.
Neither Wickham nor Napier-Bell had any discernible experience as songwriters. According to Napier-Bell, he and Wickham were dining out when she mentioned to him that Springfield hoped to get an English lyric for Donaggio's song, and the two light-heartedly took up the challenge of writing the lyric Going To A Go-Go - Smokey Robinson And The Miracles - Going To A Go-Go (Vinyl "We went back to [Wickham]'s flat and started working on it.
We wanted to go to a trendy disco so we had about an hour to write it. We wrote the chorus and then we wrote the verse in a taxi to wherever we were going. Neither Wickham or Napier-Bell understood the original Italian lyrics.
Napier-Bell later gave the same title to his first book, an autobiographical account of the British music scene of the s. Springfield recorded her vocal the next day.
Unhappy with the acoustics in the recording booth she eventually moved into a stairwell to record. She was only satisfied with her vocal after she had recorded 47 takes. Released on 25 March in the UK, the single release of Springfield's recording became a huge hit and remains one of the songs most identified with her.
When she died from breast cancer in Marchthe song was featured on Now 42 as a tribute. The song hit No. The song also topped the charts peaking at No. And also hit No. The session producer, Felton Jarvisfelt that the second take was good enough to serve as the master track but Presley insisted on a third and final take. A hit for Presley in both Australia 7 and Canada 6"You Don't Have to Say You Love Me" was twice a hit for Presley in the British Isles, with its original release reaching 9 in the UK and 17 in Ireland, in which territories the track's re-release charted with respective peaks of 16 and Most international versions of the song were subsequent to Dusty Springfield's success with "You Don't Have to Say You Love Me" and reference that version's lyrics rather than the Italian original.
Additionally, the single version and at least one of the stereo mixes exclude the first part of the second verse. The B-side on the European single is an alternate version of the song, known as the "Special Single Version".
This version was not released on CD until when Warm Leatherette was reissued. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Post-disco dance . Chris Blackwell Alex Sadkin.
Nielsen Company. Retrieved 21 May Retrieved July 11, Retrieved The Guardian. He pronounced himself Prince, the Voice of the People, and made sure he lived up to his claims by being the best. Just as he apparently made sure he would win every boxing match, he made damn sure he only used the cream of Jamaican musicians, on the hottest and hardest rhythms for his backing tracks and productions.
When the time eventually came that he could Going To A Go-Go - Smokey Robinson And The Miracles - Going To A Go-Go (Vinyl longer achieve that, I admire the fact that he largely quit the studio: nothing less than the best was ever going to be good enough for Prince Buster, and that ensured that his incredible output remains undiluted and in tact to this day. He continued with the occasional live appearance, some of which I saw and which were always of the highest possible standard.
I was lucky enough to travel with him to one gig and he really exuded the true meaning of cool a word which has become greatly abused now. It was funny to watch. That ghetto humour was at the heart of a lot of his lyrics and a huge part of his popularity in Jamaica.
It could be brutal, as could the ghetto morality that went hand in hand with it in his lyrics. On the stage when THAT voice was given free rein, it remained completely unspoiled — like his legacy — and came out exactly the same as ever. He had always mixed singing and speaking so seamlessly and tunefully that at times it is almost impossible to say which of those two things he is doing.
You would be very hard pressed to find anyone who has ever mixed those two things together better. He was the first real ambassador of Jamaican music worldwide, he was a voice of the third world — luckily for us, speaking in English, and that made him accessible to anyone in the rest of the world who spoke English and was willing to listen. At first he was LP up in this country largely by working-class kids who could probably relate to the subject matter. Initially ska and reggae was mainly ignored or ridiculed by the mainstream and rock critics — maybe that was partly because Prince Buster was at the forefront of Jamaican lyricists, blatantly and unashamedly covering subject matter that was more or less unheard of in either Europe or America.
From ghetto violence and crime, to sex in detailfrom black power and black pride, to commenting on social injustice and poverty, from advocating freedom from colonialism and solidarity with Africa, to other important matters like ridiculing his musical rivals or consigning them to the boneyard, or describing the music on his own record itself and how good that was — nothing was off limits. In that way lyrically he influenced hip-hop and a lot that was to follow the world over.
Buster and some of his Jamaican peers were liberating the sort of real language and subject matter years before it would eventually become commonplace not just in music, but in mainstream TV drama and comedy. Stylisticallythe very idea of reciting over an instrumental backing track, which Buster was a pioneer of, became the basis of hip-hop years later when the Jamaican DJ Cool Herc introduced it to the Bronx.
Buster was really the first king of Jamaican music and started an international process which, with the help of its second king, made reggae probably the most popular music in the world, only to be eventually surpassed in popularity by hip-hop, a form which it had itself helped create.
Myself and all the Two Tone bands owe him an enormous debt of gratitude. New York. Drawn from tapes recorded with King Tubby's Soul Syndicate band, the music included on 'Reckless Roots Rockers' is deeply ingrained with fissures of rhythm and dub melodies - bringing a vast array of talent to bear on some fabulously low-end material.
With much of the album recorded in Jamaica, there were plentiful tributaries on which to draw, as the likes of Jah Carlos, Bullwackies Allstars and Joe Morgan all make fierce appearances. Opening through the Reckless Breed's 'Dub Full Of Girls', we're immediately transported to a humid smoke-draped environ - as the familiar melody snakes its way through jaunty rhythms and an overarching sense of light that is a welcoming salve for a dark November night.
For those who know about such things, the inclusion of Don Carlos' deadly 'Jah Man' will be of particular note - with this particular slice of dub fortitude crafted over a rhythm double-take of Wayne Jarrett's 'Bubble Up' unavailable anywhere else and now rightly resurrected for appreciative audiences to rediscover, whilst dubs of Wackies' vast Black Harmony rhythm crops up throughout like a welcome friend throughout.
Elsewhere, 'Exposure' from the Sylvesters is a lithe and uncluttered beast, Bullwackies Allstars 'Creation' contains some demon rhythms, whilst 'Chin Chow' from Reckless Breed will have you nodding till Sunday.
Posted by Jillem on Wednesday, September 29, Killer heavy roots business. Jah Lloyd, a. He looked the part of the artist down on his luck, his frame wizened by poor health, his gait slow; but his clothing was flamboyant and his eyes keen.
Sitting on a shady porch, he allowed me to turn his attention from his daily struggle for a living to his great works done twenty years before. He spoke about his songs with great care, almost tenderness. We made plans to meet again, but by the time I returned to Jamaica he had died. A: Under the name Pat Francis. And then I form a group called Meditators. A: I was about say 16, We used to sing and practice with the guitar lots of nights before we could go to studio. They used to have audition on Saturday where lot of artists come, then they pick the best from a lot of them.
Out of a hundred they might pick 20, or 10 from that. At the same session I do two for Upsetter label. Q: Back up for a minute. A: Yes. And I find that my voice could able to deejay. A: Jah Scuff.
He just do that one song. He was never interested to do more. So I produce songs for a lot of artists like Heptones, Mighty Diamonds. A: Yeah it was my song. Produced by me. North Parade Street. A: No. Douglas Boothe. He always say he was his brother, but then I find out it was not his real brother. Know ye that the Lord is God, cause He made us and not we ourself. We are His people and the sheep of His pasture.
So we take that song from there. And whosever believeth in Him shall never perish but ever live in light. With spiritual rhymes. Of Rastafari. Which we intend might be God or Jesus.
But his version was very good. I still admire the way he do it. Shenley Duffus first did that as adapted song, a do-over song, on Upsetter label. I used to sell it in the shop. So we do that piece from that version.
That mean a certain amount of respect due Album) your mother and father and elders. It was a musical fight. So each time a artist come with a hit, you find something to answer back.
But with love in our heart, we can show the world that there is no war. People who is not righteous do not bear much fruit, or good fruit. Bitter fruit them bear. So, they are not governed by the spirit of God, or Jah. Q: When you did these great lyrics, did you sit down and work them out or…. A: That song came very quick, usually in those days songs came very quick to me, just like you hear the riddim, listen the riddim, and then [snaps his fingers] the inspiration just come.
A: Yeah [pants several times]! And Scratch laugh and say he running from something, police want him or something. A: Yeah. I think it was Horsemouth [Leroy Wallace] playing a little melody. You mean the world to me. It never press a lot but it a good song. It sound good.
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