Gregory the Great and used formally in all church services. Through the influence of the Church, the new form of music spread quickly toward the West. Oud-like instruments such as the Ancient Greek Pandoura and the Roman Pandura likely made their way to the Iberian Peninsula much earlier than the oud, but it was the royal houses of Al-Andalus that cultivated the level of oud playing and raised the popularity of the instrument.
The most famous oud player of Al-Andalus was Zyriab. He established the first music conservatory in Spain and added a fifth course to the instrument. The European version of the oud came to be known as the lute luth in French, laute in German, liuto in Italian, luit in Dutch, and alaud in Spanish.
Unlike the oud, the European lute introduced frets usually tied gut. Construction of the oud is similar to the lute. The back of the instrument is made of thin wood staves, edge-glued together. The instrument usually has an odd number of staves — a center stave rather than a center seam. Contrasting trim pieces are often used between staves. Patterns and wood species generally vary between luthiers. The top is generally made of two book-matched pieces of spruce.
Transverse spruce braces are glued to the underside of the top. The necks were generally made of a single piece of wood and veneered in a striped pattern similar to that of the back. The peghead meets the neck at a severe angle. The topics were still courtly love and secular pleasures. The Guitarra Latina, however, eventually evolved into the guitar.
An examplee has survived from around The increasing reliance on the interval of the third as a consonance is one of the most pronounced features of early Renaissance European art music in the Middle Ages, thirds had been considered dissonances: see interval. Polyphony, in use since the 12th century, became increasingly elaborate with highly independent voices throughout the 14th century.
The beginning of the 15th century showed simplification, with the voices often striving for smoothness. This was possible because of a greatly increased vocal range in music — in the Middle Ages, the narrow range made necessary frequent crossing of parts, thus requiring a greater contrast between them.
Stringed instruments gained strings to extend their usable range. The modal as opposed to tonal characteristics of Renaissance music began to break down towards the end of the period with the increased use of root motions of fifths. This later developed into one of the defining characteristics of tonality. The Italian humanist movement, rediscovering and reinterpreting the aesthetics of ancient Greece and Rome, influenced the development of musical style during the period.
The first guitars are thought to have originated during the 15th Century in Spain. However the Lute was consistently favored by the public over the Guitar until the end of the 15th Century. When I heard it in Calaonia, it was being used much more often by women to accompany love songs, than by men. We should preserve the tradition of our elders.
It used gut strings in six courses and was played with a pick, unlike the other early guitar forms, which were bowed. Seven manuscripts survived; written for the upper classes.
The music was transcribed in a form of tablature. Note the fifths in the former. Copernicus was the first to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology with the sun — not the earth — at the center of the universe. These include pieces for 5 course guitar. The addition of the 5th course was attributed to Vicente Espinel. This, in theory, would help eliminate any trace of secularism that had crept into the church.
The need for soprano and alto parts in harmony was filled by young boys. The problem was that their voices tended to drop with puberty at about the same time that they were well trained and familiar with the ever more difficult singing parts.
The solution in Italy was castration. This tended to preserve the high voices. The practice was common by Though the work was not published outside China at the time, it would have a profound effect on all of Western music.
In essence, he solved the problem of equal temperament. Chu Tsai-yu devised that the 5ths can be tempered not by the relative lengths of the pipes but by the ratios of their sizes. He calculated a formula that yielded a scale of evenly spaced notes where the semitones fit properly into the octave.
Ironically, the discovery was irrelevant to Chinese musical theory, which was based upon a 5 tone scale. The Jesuit Priest Matteo Ricci, as part of a group of Jesuit Missionaries in the Southern port of Macao, appears to have passed the information out of China around See The complex harmonies were secular in nature and told tales of grief or love. This notion is customarily offered as an inspiration of the Baroque.
The move toward a populist conception of the function of ecclesiastical art is seen by many art historians as driving the innovations of Caravaggio and the Carracci brothers, all of whom were working in Rome at that time. The appeal of the Baroque style shifted consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses.
It used direct, simple, obvious, and dramatic iconography. Baroque art drew on certain broad and heroic tendencies in Annibale Carracci and his circle and flourished with artists such as Caravaggio, and Federico Barocci.
Germinal ideas of the Album) can also be found in the work of Michelangelo and Correggio. Baroque music used contrasting phrase lengths, harmony and counterpoint replacing polyphony and orchestral color made a stronger appearance.
During the Baroque period, a 5th course of two strings was added, and several publications especially for guitarists were produced. At the end of the Baroque period, the courses were replaced by single strings, and a final string was added to create the six-stringed guitar of today. In Europe, musicians and artists were generally supported by the church, the state and the rich.
This patronage system had been practiced in Italy for hundreds of years, Including the late s and early s, when Michelangelo worked as a sculptor and artist for the Medici family in Florence. During the Baroque period the 5 course guitar effectively replaced the 4 and 6 course vihuela instruments, and the tuning was largely standardized with notable exceptions to ADGBE.
Note that this matches the current standard tuning of the top 5 strings. In his notes and papers was the formula for equal temperament by Chu Tsai-yu from The timing was perfect — equal temperament was the issue of the day with advancements in harmony and composition. It would be many years before the issues were fully resolved, and the refined scale was hotly debated.
It was not until the era of Beethoven that the equally tempered scale was fully adopted by Western composers. Charles was a guitar player as well. Corbetta was dedicated to Louis XIV. It served to increase the popularity of the guitar. Newton demonstrated that the motions of objects on earth and celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws.
This removed remaining doubts about heliocentrism see and set the stage for advances in the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. He had been an apprentice to Nicolo Amati, and created some of the most treasured violins in history during his golden period — and As a luthier, he fashioned many different types of instruments, including a very small number of guitars between and Surviving examples are maple backed and have ebony fretboards and inlays and a scale length of 74 cm.
He is said to have built or collaborated on more than 1, instruments total. Approximately instruments survive today. He is noted for various innovations in harpsichord construction and especially for the invention of the piano. Nor is it to be denied that after the pinching way, the ghittar makes some good work. The mechanical action had hammers that tapped the heavy string courses and a shift so the hammer would play only one of the two strings Dancing Bear - The Mamas & The Papas - The Mamas & The Papas (Vinyl lower volume.
The idea was not immediately popular in Italy. Harpsichord players found the touch difficult to master and were not comfortable with the unfamiliar tone. While still tightly linked to the court culture and absolutism, with its formality and emphasis on order and hierarchy, the new style was cleaner, and favored a clearer division between parts, brighter contrasts and colors, and simplicity rather than complexity.
This taste for structural clarity worked its way into the world of music, moving away from the layered polyphony of the Baroque period, towards a style where a melody over a subordinate harmony — a combination called homophony — was preferred. This meant that the playing of chords, even if they interrupted the melodic smoothness of a single part, became a much more prevalent feature of music.
This, in turn, made the tonal structure of works more audible. Changes in the economic and in social structure also moved the new style forward. As the 18th century progressed, the nobility became the primary patrons of instrumental music, and there was a rise in the public taste for comic opera. This led to changes in the way music was performed, the most crucial of which was the move to standard instrumental groups and the reduction in the importance of the continuo — the harmonic fill beneath the music, often played by several instruments.
One way to trace this decline of the continuo and its figured chords is to examine the decline of the term obbligato meaning a mandatory instrumental part in a work of chamber music. Bythe term was virtually extinct. Beethoven is also sometimes regarded either as a Romantic composer or a composer who was part of the transition to the Romantic; Franz Schubert is also something of a transitional figure.
Bach tried one of his pianos but did not like the heavy touch and weak treble. Serious works for the guitar were few and far between during the rise of the new piano and the Classical Period. The guitar assumed the role of an instrument of polite society for the amorous and frivolous. The piece is enthusiastically received. Bach dies. Many view this as the end of the Baroque Period. The popularity of guitar grows throughout Europe.
He is viewed by many as the most influential figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western music. He studied under Joseph Haydn and gained a reputation as a virtuoso pianist as a young man.
His hearing began to deteriorate in the late s, and yet he continued to perform, conduct and compose even after becoming completely deaf. The Vinaccia family of luthiers is known for developing the mandolin. This guitar has been examined and does not show telltale signs of modifications from a double-course guitar. The authenticity of guitars allegedly produced before the s is often in question. The movement was led by the French and the Italians. Spain, for the most part, continued with 6-course instruments.
The absolute French monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic Clergy was violently overthrown and replaced with a government formed under the Enlightenment and based on principals of citizenship and inalienable rights. The transition was not smooth. Following the French Revolution, property confiscated from the aristocracy by the Committee for the Public Safety included dozens of guitars. To many, this marks the beginning of the Romantic Period.
On February 12th, Abraham Lincoln was also born. In the morning, as the smoke cleared, he saw the American flag still waving. The new arrangement was especially appropriate to the patriotic fervor of the time and became widely popular. This was a period of political and intellectual upheaval. Science and art flourished. Romantic Music refers to the theory, compositional practice, and canon in European music history, from about to It is more appropriate to describe romanticism as the expansion of formal structures within a composition, making the pieces more emotionally expressive.
Because of the particular use of these elements of form, key, instrumentation, etc. For example, Beethoven favored a smooth transition from the 3rd to 4th movement in his symphonies, and therefore his pieces are easier to identify.
This made public performance possible. His modest storefront housed limited guitar production in the back room and retail space selling everything from cornets to sheet music. Samuel Colt perfected the 1st handgun with a revolving cylinder: the legendary 6-shooter.
April 24th, a patent for the 1st soda fountain machine. December 3rd: Oberlin College Ohio was founded — the 1st American co-educational college and later, the 1st American college to advocate the abolition of slavery and accept black men and women on equal terms with whites.
This is the version most often sung today. The original lyrics grew from a collaboration between minister John Newton and poet William Cowper, also a born-again Christian. It was defended by Texans including James Bowie, Col. William B. Travis and Tennessean Davy Crocket.
He placed emphasis on the action of the soundboard in producing volume and tone. To improve the instrument he enlarged the body and refined a pattern of fan bracing still used today. His preferred scale length was cm. Many of his improvements are considered the standards of the classical guitar today. His innovations resulted in the formation of the Spanish School of Guitar Making whose membership included the most important luthiers of the late 19th century, including the Ramirez family.
Martin, Sr. The New York Philharmonic was founded, now the oldest orchestra in the U. Originally known as The Philharmonic Society of New York some feel that actual date of establishment is One year later, bathtubs were still prohibited in Boston except when prescribed by a physician.
Later popularized in arrangements by Aaron Copland Martin introduces the 0 model. This made tall buildings and skyscrapers possible. This also made truss rods possible. It was a seminal work in scientific literature and arguably the pivotal work in evolutionary biology.
The sixth edition of shortened the title to The Origin of Species. It introduced the theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. John Brown at Fort Warren in Boston. His songs, such as Oh!
This was followed in by the 5 cent nickel —quarter dollar, half dollar, silver dollar and gold dollars. An law allowed the motto to be used on all coins. Inthe use of the motto was permitted, but not required.
While several laws came into play, the act of May 18th, is most often cited as requiring the motto even though the cent and nickel were excluded from that law, and the nickel did not have the motto added until Sinceall coins have borne the motto. The Civil War had officially ended. Booth hoped to create chaos and overthrow the Federal government.
Although Booth succeeded in killing Lincoln, the larger plot failed. As the retail gateway to the west and mail-order capitol of the world, musical instrument manufacturers and distributors were seriously affected. Many never recovered. Those that survived grew stronger. He was a musical prodigy, guitar virtuoso and composer of numerous timeless pieces for guitar.
His groundbreaking playing and performance techniques propelled the popularity of the classical guitar forward and inspired equal leaps in instrument design.
Sales records of the 00 guitar begin to appear on the books. Three different versions of pianos that played themselves were demonstrated at the Philadelphia Exposition. They would eventually become player pianos. It had two diaphragm-and-needle units; one for recording, and one for playback. He could speak into a reverse horn and the sound vibrations were then impressed into delicate tin foil wrapped on a metal cylinder by a recording needle in vertical grooves.
The hand cranked phonograph is demonstrated by Edison on November 29th, The phonograph will eventually allow the spread of popular music. The Academy represented the highest social circle in New York society and the board of directors resisted admitting members of new wealthy families into their inner circle. The initial group of subscribers included the Morgan, Roosevelt, Astor and Vanderbilt families. Their creation, The Metropolitan Opera, has outlasted the Academy. Higginson would run the Orchestra for almost 40 years.
Yiddish theater begins its period of greatest popularity and influence. The strings are melodically picked and stopped by a metal bar, with the guitar held across the lap. The Berne Convention, the international agreement on copyrights, is signed. The United States does not sign the agreement until It was the first reasonably viable phonograph record.
Berliner was a German-American inventor best known for inventing the lateral-cut flat disc record: gramophone record to be used with another of his inventions — the Gramophone. Gibson at 34 years old, settled in Kalamazoo, Michigan and took up the hobby of making musical instruments. Horse drawn carriages lined the streets for a quarter mile and inside the Music Hall was a capacity crowd.
At the end of Dancing Bear - The Mamas & The Papas - The Mamas & The Papas (Vinyl 19th Century the classical guitar had lost popularity but was re-introduced to the world by Francisco Tarrega, who began the tradition adopted by almost all classical guitarists of today by using the finger-nails to pick the strings.
The event was conceived and promoted by James B. Upham as a campaign to instill American nationalism by selling flags to public schools and magazines to students. Bellamy was a Baptist minister and a Christian socialist. Phonographs are improving but are still a long way away from being commercial.
On May 11th Orville Gibson filed for his first and only patent. The document U. Patent No. The creation of the first large Sears and Roebuck Co. This made possible nationwide distribution of all sorts of products including musical instruments by postal service.
Storyville the famed red light district of New Orleans opens. It was named after New Orleans alderman Sidney Story. The Ragtime craze is at full tilt. The first effective player piano was released to the public and heavily marketed. This would bring piano roll versions of many forms of music into American households over the next 20 years. Stark and Joplin remain friends for years. Horn players imitate the human voice with mutes and growls. New Orleans players are playing a mix of Blues, Ragtime, brass band music, marches, Pop songs and dances.
The Jazz stew is brewing. Some musicians are beginning to improvise Pop songs. The end of the Spanish-American war has brought a surplus of used military band instruments into the port of New Orleans. Migrations from the south into Chicago, Detroit, Pittsburgh, etc. Luthier Robert Maurer decided to retire. August Larson gathered investors Edward P.
Longworthy and Joshua H. Lewis and bought the firm from Maurer. It was the beginning of the Larson Brothers instruments. Andrew Carnegie sold his industrial holdings to J. A hurricane and tidal wave hit Galveston. Texas on September 8th.
The highest point of land on the island was 5 feet above sea level. There was no advance warning and the only access to the mainland was by boat. By the time the residents and visitors knew the danger, there was no means of escape. There were so many bodies, they were taken out to sea and dumped. The bodies later washed back up onto the Galveston shores and were burned. This event became the topic of many songs over the next century. In New York City, in an August heat-wave, tensions between white Irish and black Southern immigrants flared into riots at the funeral of a white Irish plain-cloths police officer who had been cut by a black man protecting his girl-friend from harassment.
Among those beaten in the riots were Vaudevillian actor, comic, dancer and musician George Walker as he walked with a friend named Shine. The introduction to the song is needed to get the original intent of the song. He is beginning to be noticed in New Orleans as a brothel piano player. He is one of the first to play this mix forerunner of Jazz. Jelly Roll will later claim that he invented Jazz in by combining Ragtime, Quadrilles and Blues. The phonograph has been drastically improved.
Victor and Columbia emerge as leaders in the phonograph field at that time phonograph companies made records. The public started to buy phonographs and records cylinders for home use. Adams, Samuel K. VanHorn, and Orville H. Handy has started a saxophone quartet. The saxophone was a novelty in Frank Henry Martin introduces the size guitar.
This size body is made to compete with mandolins and banjos. The company designs its first Style 45 guitar. The flight lasted 12 seconds and covered feet. Handy hears the rural blues played on a slide guitar with a knife blade as a slide by an itinerant blues guitarist in a railroad station in Tutwiler, Mississippi.
It sparks a career for him. The rest is history. A partnership is formed. New Orleans blues trumpet pioneer Buddy Bolden runs amok and is committed to the state hospital at Angola on June 5. Buddy will spend the rest of his life there and will never be recorded. Keppard was not recorded until many years later because he was afraid of having his style stolen. Columbia produces the first two-sided disc. Blues publishing pioneer W. Handy brings saxophones into his dance band. It lasted for 48 seconds and in some areas the ground moved 20 feet.
All civil services were destroyed or heavily damaged. Wood frame, in general, held up better in earthquakes. It also burns. Gas lines were ruptured, ignited, and fires broke out around the ruins of the city. Top UK Apple Music. Radio Episodes See All. Andrew Watt Producer Andrew Watt co-hosts and chooses his favourite tracks. Just Updated See All. Hypnotic Techno Entrancing beats for tunneling deeper into the mind. Happy 70th, Sting See All. Ghost in the Machine Remastered The Police.
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Joseph Spinelli June 1, at pm. How about Emerson Lake and Palmer. You know, the band that practically invented the synthesizer. Peter June 1, at pm. Beresford du-Cille October 12, at am. ELP were the only band I ever walked out on. I liked the albums but they were so boring live. Carmeli April 6, at pm. Mike February 14, at pm. Bill August 23, at pm. Made yourselves look like idiots. Andy J April 7, at am. Second from the last is Lou Reed Transformer.
Craig May 31, at pm. Craig June 1, at am. Will June 11, at am. What about the Santana album?. Lee August 26, at am. Juergen August 24, at am. Randy August 26, at am. What…no Peter Gabriel or Yes…. Another crime of the century …. David LeRoy May 31, at pm.
You have the same album listed twice at 99 and And no Sgt. Reg Warner May 31, at pm. Chris Chamberlain May 31, at pm. Vlietist June 1, at am. Trout Mask Replica dull, predictable, and popular? Robert June 1, at pm.
Bobg April 8, at am. James Yates May 31, at pm. Martin Lindsey May 31, at pm. Chuck May 31, at pm. David Leroy: Really!! Lucky Man May 31, at pm. Close to the Edge May 31, at pm. Victor May 31, at pm. Darryl June 1, at pm. John December 12, at pm. JOHN January 3, at pm. Delores Bennett March 5, at pm. Chris Leighfield May 31, at pm. Take a flying leap. Because you disagree? Larry May 31, at pm. Kansas Leftoverture, surly this epic album could have been placed somewhere in that list.
John Blair September 11, at pm. Agree with you. Should be in the top 20 at least, if not Top 5. Leftoverture is Top Ten … a masterpiece. Alan Peter Seger December 8, at am. To each his own. TheAsphaltWorld May 31, at pm. No Brittney Spears.
Tour list is meaningless. Philip James June 1, at am. Steve April 6, at pm. RevRonsRants May 31, at pm. Jaydizzoh May 31, at pm. Rick June 5, at pm. Bryan October 10, at am.
I was thinking the same thing Sgt Pepper. Would also add Boston and Peter Frampton. No yes, Gary numan, cars, moody blues,or marillion but the Beach Boys.
Your list is invalid. George June 1, at pm. Reynaldo August 24, at pm. George May 31, at pm. Dean May 31, at pm. All thumbs up on Physical Graffiti! In the light you will find the road! Where is … — Deep Purple in Rock? Tom Kuhn. Brian May 31, at pm. Jefsil May 31, at pm. Limpi May 31, at pm. Burt May 31, at pm.
Probably Daft Punk and Prince are milestones of rock and we ignore this fact. Jorgen Larsen May 31, at pm. Dustin May 31, at pm. Paul Watson May 31, at pm. Dave June 1, at pm. Magin May 31, at pm. Joe Cogan May 31, at pm.
Sylvain Chartrand May 31, at pm. James Brown??? Tommy 92???? Taylor May 31, at pm. Vinyl Junkie May 31, at pm. Dead Parrot May 31, at pm. Andres May 31, at pm. A Night at the Opera is at 40 on the list. El Duderino May 31, at pm. Sidney Allen Johnson May 31, at pm. Ernesto San Giacomo April 7, at pm.
John Whitworth February 4, at pm. Jacob May 31, at pm. Hubert May 31, at pm. Dude June 1, at am. Jeff Clausen May 31, at pm. Brad Deniston May 31, at pm. Fernando Passos May 31, at pm. Laurobf May 31, at pm. Wayne June 2, at am. Danny Griffin September 12, at am. Paul Mcateer May 31, at pm. How the heck is America-History not on this list? Gray May 31, at pm. Sorry should have read, Carnival of Light by Ride. Really late now!!! Mark Thompson May 31, at pm.
ChrisB May 31, at pm. Steve May 31, at pm. Good list but I really think Def Leppard Pyromania should be at least top Dave Young May 31, at pm. Ed May 31, at pm. Glenn Peterson May 31, at pm. Other than that….
Pete June 1, at pm. A sin of omission indeed! Nige May 31, at pm. William May 31, at pm. Mike Steuber May 31, at pm. Gonzo May 31, at pm. Tunanorth May 31, at pm. Rob May 31, at pm. Randy Pogue May 31, at pm. Eric May 31, at pm.
Angelo May 31, at pm. Kev May 31, at pm. Jennifer Lapidus May 31, at pm. AB June 1, at am. EB May 31, at pm. Jeff Oakes May 31, at pm. Mike Omalior May 31, at pm. The Sex Pistols ahead of Derek and the Dominos, seriously?
And what about Free? Fire and water? John O'Rourke May 31, at pm. Neil Avey May 31, at pm. Michael May 31, at pm. Edward May 31, at pm. Jeff Oakes June 2, at pm. YesYesYes May 31, at pm. Kevin Gratton May 31, at pm. Gilbert May 31, at pm. Like several people said — to each their own. Dominic Pennachio May 31, at pm. Clayton Nimtz May 31, at pm. Grumpy Cat May 31, at pm. John Hammond May 31, at pm. Pedro Escarela May 31, at pm. YakuzaMonkey May 31, at pm.
Blaine Kim May 31, at pm. Billy Auld May 31, at pm. John May 31, at pm. CrazyHorse June 1, at am. Jefferson Airplane — Surrealistic Pillow, nowhere on this list. Robert June 1, at am. Lisa June 1, at am. J-Nasty June 1, at am. Patrick June 1, at am. Chuck June 1, at am. Dick Cahoon June 1, at am. Michael M June 1, at am. Rich June 1, at am. Zvi Lando June 1, at am. June 1, at am. Tony June 1, at am.
Muso June 1, at pm. Paul Taylorson June 1, at pm. Leonard Mosher June 1, at pm. Silverio June 1, at pm. Bed list! No Grand Funk? No Creedence? No Kinks? No Santana, Faces…? Ted Ventura June 1, at pm. LLvis October 9, at pm. Kelli June 1, at pm. Brian June 1, at pm. Euan Wilkinson June 1, at pm. Grateful Doug June 1, at pm. Craig June 1, at pm. Dave Priestap June 1, at pm.
Randy Berner June 1, at pm. How totally arbitrary. Steve Holmes June 1, at pm. Mike June 1, at pm. I think many can agree with me when I say Dark Side of the Moon is at least top 5. Gary Brewer June 1, at pm. Paul Higginbotham June 1, at pm. Ryan June 1, at pm. Boston — Boston? That album had more top tracks than any of the time period…. Bashkim June 2, at am. Gerry June 2, at am. SaltLakeSmitty June 2, at pm.
Jack Webb June 2, at pm. Seriously, no Grateful Dead. Back to the drawing board lads. John Blair June 3, at am. Junebug June 3, at am. Brian June 3, at pm. Tony Sweeting June 3, at pm. Billy Auld June 8, at am. Richard June 4, at am. Colin June 4, at pm. Garrett Jennings June 4, at pm. Sean June 5, at am. Joaquin Leoni June 7, at pm.
Ted Wright June 10, at pm. Joaquin: You are so right. Thanks Joaquin. Elisdad44 June 7, at pm. There are at least another we can fit in to The Top Why vote.
I like all Roberto June 10, at pm. Gary June 10, at pm. Sergio Quintana June 11, at am. Gompie June 11, at LP. Kev June 11, at am. Dewi June 11, at pm. Danny June 11, at pm. Barry July 16, at pm. Speedking June 11, at pm. Frank June 12, at am. Will June 12, at am. Eric Hall June 12, at am. John McT June 12, at am. Kirk Koster June 12, at pm. Ernie June 12, at pm. LP yeah! You are more on track than this list. Jackson June 18, at am.
Jyri Mikkola June 12, at pm. What about Van der Graaf Generator or Gong? RobD June 20, at pm. SylvainT June 20, at pm. Vas June 30, at pm. Nick August 1, at am. Steeler Bob August 12, at am. Jim August 23, at pm. Shawn August 23, at pm.
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