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Document Information click to expand document information Description: palavras que ocorrem com mais frequencia nos filmes americanos. Original Title frequencia de palavras no ingles. The listening public could now hear the nuance of speech and music over the airwaves. Homer Capehart sold his Simplex record changer mechanism to the Wurlitzer Company. Wurlitzer used the invention to produce the jukebox. The jukebox changed the face of popular music by making new tunes available to all.
Instrument manufacturer Dobro made a handful of modified resonator Spanish style guitars with electromagnetic horseshoe pickups. These can be argued to be the first manufactured electric Spanish style guitars with electromagnetic pickups. From tothe Committee was authorized to investigate Nazi propaganda and certain other propaganda activities. The biggest archtop to hit the market and the highest price tag at the height of the depression.
The competition for the biggest and flashiest instruments was on. The trial was broadcast on network radio and the new format found an eager and appreciative audience. These record jockeys, as they were called, were soon entertaining listeners with discs all over the country. The Big Band Era had begun. Mahalia Jackson made her first Gospel recordings.
T-Bone Walker began experimenting with a prototype electric guitar and was one of the first guitarists anywhere to play the instrument in public. The instrument was probably a Rickenbacker Vibrola model. He soon got his hands on a Gibson sunburst ES that he played into the late s. Gibson introduced the ES The was basically a modified L archtop fitted with a bar electromagnetic pickup. It was viewed as the first readily available production model electric guitar.
Gibson introduces the Super Jumbo flat-top acoustic guitar. It is seen in the hands of Ray Whitley and Gene Autry on the silver screen. Robert Johnson made his second and last recording session in Dallas, Texas.
Patents were granted to George Beauchamp for the electromagnetic horseshoe pickups, filed originally in and He used the public platform as a way to have his songs heard and tell stories of what he had seen and experienced through the American mid-west and the Dust Bowl years. Bill Monroe forms the Blue Grass Boys, creating a fusion of Appalachian folk music with blues, polka and other genres from around the world.
Roy Acuff joined the Grand Ole Opry. Leo Fender was a qualified electronics technician and had been asked to repair radios, phonograph players, home audio amplifiers, public address systems and musical instrument amplifiers. At the time, most of these were just variations on a few simple vacuum-tube circuits.
World War II had begun. The film was a hit. Some historians feel that this marked the beginning of the Western Swing craze. Within a very short time cowboy hats, boots, string ties and rawhide vests were seen all over Southern California.
South Carolina native Dizzy Gillespie began an innovative style of trumpet performance that would come to be called BeBop. Guitarist Les Paul signs an endorsement deal with Gibson, appearing in ads with the ES electric archtop model. They shared a political preference to promoted peace and isolationism before the start of World War II. They featured songs opposing entry into the war. The Almanac Singers supported the change and began to produce many pro-war songs urging the U.
The Almanac Singers disbanded when the U. Epaminondas Epi Strathopoulo of Epiphone dies on June 6th, at age Gobitis that students in public schools could be compelled to swear the Pledge of Allegiance. Barnette — that public school students are not required to say the Pledge of Allegiance.
In a later opinion, the Court held that students are also not required to stand for the Pledge. With the support of one of his clients, guitarist Andre Segovia, he successfully introduced nylon strings for classical guitars. Circus Tent Fire. The tent could seat 9, around three performance rings. To keep it waterproof, the canvas had been treated with 1, lbs kg of paraffin wax dissolved in 6, gallons 23, l of kerosene. On Thursday a work daythe afternoon performance was estimated at 7, dominated by women and children.
A small fire began on the Southwest sidewall of the tent while the Great Wallendas were performing. It accelerated quickly due to the flammable canvas treatment. As Ringmaster Fred Bradna urged the audience not to panic and to leave in an orderly fashion, the power failed and his instructions could not be heard.
The death toll is estimated at with injury estimates of over people. Young Robert Dale Segee confessed to starting the fire but was never tried and later recanted. The Hartford circus fire was one of the worst fire disasters in Aint No Cure For Love - Leonard Cohen - Songs From The Life Of Leonard Cohen (VHS) States history.
Hal Blaine, famous percussionist of the Wrecking Crew, was one of the small children at the fire. President Roosevelt died. Harry Truman became president of the United States. Mussolini was killed by Italian partisans on April 28th. German forces surrendered in Italy on April 29th and Germany itself surrendered on May 7th. At the order of U. President Harry S. Truman, after 6 months of intense firebombing of 67 other Japanese cities, the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on the city of Hiroshima on Monday, August 6th,followed on August 9th by the detonation of the Fat Man nuclear bomb over Nagasaki.
These are to-date the only attacks with nuclear weapons in the history of warfare. RCA Victor and Columbia held out for nearly two years more. Les Paul invents echo-delay, multi-track recording and many other techniques that further expand recording possibilities. Les Paul takes his homemade experimental semi-solid guitar to Gibson to try to sell the instrument commercially. Gibson says no.
The bikini was introduced in Paris. Two-piece swimsuits had been in fashion since the early s, and always covered the navel. He predicted the new fashion would incite a cultural explosion to rival the recent nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll. It took a while for the bikini to catch on in the United States. Merle sketched an idea for a solid body guitar and asked if Paul could build it for him.
It had all six tuning pegs on one side of the headstock and was completed in and played by Merle on numerous recordings, radio and public appearances. Merle claims that Leo Fender borrowed and copied the guitar, but no one seems to know for sure. The Ravens introduce a new form of harmony singing featuring bass vocalist Jimmy Ricks out front with tenor Maithe Marshall floating on top of the melody. Ampex introduced the first commercially available magnetic tape recording machine in the US The technology had been developed in Nazi Germany in the s.
The Ampex Model They also hire future singing stars B. King and Rufus Thomas as DJs. Multitrack magnetic recording was born. Gordon Jenkins, an arranger-bandleader with connections to Decca Records, heard them there and was impressed. His discovery led to a record deal with Decca. Senator from the State of Wisconsin from until his death in Beginning inMcCarthy became the public face of intense anti-communist suspicion inspired by the tensions of the Cold War.
The McCarthy era had begun. The Weavers felt some compromises were worth getting the songs exposed to the public. The new approach initially proved successful. The Korean War began on June 25th, The forerunner of the Fender Telecaster was Introduced for national distribution as the Broadcaster in the autumn of The earliest versions in the spring of were the single and dual-pickup Esquire models.
A wave of young black vocal groups springs up with variations of the style popularized by the Orioles. It tops the charts. His initial audience was young blacks, but he quickly attracted young white listeners. This helped burn songs into their collective memory. It helped shape the influences of a generation. It remains in production today. Seth Lover joined Gibson as a full-time employee to work in the electronics department. Among other things, he began to work on new pickup designs.
Johnny Ace, a former piano player with the Beale Streeters, a group that included blues legends B. Only three 78rpm and no 45rpm copies are known to exist. The Folkways anthology presented African-American and white roots music as equally valid. Political ballads were treated the same as Creole Chants. Some feel this to be the definitive collection of early American music. He was the former five-star general who served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe.
He died during the night. He was 43 years old. Major hostilities in the Korean War ended with the armistice signed on July 27th. This cleared the way for the manufacture of standardized preamplifiers and the beginning of the audiophile market — the research and development of better sounding playback equipment speakers, preamplifiers, amplifiers, phonograph cartridges and turntables. The owner of Sun Records, Sam Phillips, was out that day. Hays took the Fifth Amendment to avoid prosecution.
Seeger simply refused to answer, claiming his First Amendment rights. He was the first to do so after the conviction of the Hollywood Ten in Seeger was found guilty of contempt and placed under restrictions by the court pending appeal. Seeger was added to the entertainment industry blacklist publication Red Channels.
All of the Weavers were placed under FBI surveillance and not allowed to perform on television or radio. Decca Records terminated their recording contract and deleted their records from the Decca catalog.
Since their recordings were denied airplay, they lost all income from royalties. Right-wing and anti-Communist groups protested at their performances and harassed promoters. After this, Pete Seeger built upon his solo career. He found interest and support in the College Circuit and teaching music to children.
Mario Maccaferri introduced plastic guitars. It had worked well with plastic ukuleles inbut the plastic flat-top G and archtop G never really caught on.
December — The first issue of Playboy was published. The centerfold was a fully naked Marilyn Monroe stretched upon a deep red velvet background with an upraised arm, closed eyes and open mouth.
The first issue sold out within a few weeks. Later inthe Senate voted to censure Senator McCarthy by a vote of 67 to 22, making him one of the few senators ever to be disciplined in this fashion.
February 8th: Rep. Charles Oakman R-Mich. Congress passed the necessary legislation and Eisenhower signed the bill into law on Flag Day, June 14th, Pop record companies try desperately to capitalize on the fad by having white artists cover black vocal group records and the increased distribution and radio play assures many of those versions of becoming the hits. They worked for hours without much luck. Sam stepped out the back of the control room into the ally for a cigarette, tempted to give up on the session.
Wide public exposure to Rockabilly was born with the release of the record on July 19th. Following the show, he was told by Opry manager Jim Denny that he should go back to Memphis and his truck-driving career. Elvis swore never to return. It would be 39 years before that record was broken. Disneyland opened in Anaheim, California. It was a come-back for the group following their inclusion on the entertainment industry blacklist.
Pete Seeger was convicted of contempt of Congress for refusing to discuss his political affiliations with the House Committee of Un-American Activities HUACalthough the conviction was overturned on appeal in May, Louis, Missouri traveled to Chicago where he met Muddy Waters. Waters suggested he contact Leonard Chess of Chess Records. At that time, Chess had seen the blues market shrink and was looking to move beyond the rhythm and blues market, and he thought Berry might be that artist who could do it.
The song ushers in descending pentatonic double-stops, which becomes the essence of rock guitar. Full-length albums with their higher prices limit their appeal for teenagers and remain largely the realm of adult pop singers for another decade. It killed their hits for four years due to radio blackballing. State police subsequently ban all further rock concerts in the state. Boston follows suit by assembling a record censorship board to prevent dirty rock records from being played on the air.
With censorship prevalent, white cover records still hold a slight edge in radio play but not in sales. Seth Lover begins work on a new humbucking pickup design at Gibson.
Ray Butts begins work on a new humbucking pickup design for Gretsch. He appears twice on The Ed Sullivan Show in the fall to big ratings, and releases his first film that November.
Donegan had synthesized American Southern Blues with simple acoustic instruments: acoustic guitar, washtub bass and washboard rhythm. The new style captivated an entire generation of post-war youth in England. The Legality of this motto was quickly challenged as the United States Constitution forbids the government to make any law respecting the establishment of a national religion.
The official cause of death was acute hepatitis. It is widely accepted that this was brought on by alcoholism. Kerouac is recognized for his spontaneous method of writing on topics including Catholic spirituality, jazz, promiscuity, Buddhism, drugs, poverty, and travel. There is still disagreement as to who designed the first humbucker. On his final Ed Sullivan appearance, Elvis Presley is filmed from the waist up. The screams from the studio audience only make what the home viewer was missing even more suggestive.
Jailhouse Rock, starring Elvis Presley, is considered the best rock film and introduces a precursor to the rock video, as the title song has an elaborate setting in a jail cell choreographed by Presley himself.
The ratings, however, beat the top-ranked Ed Sullivan Show f or the first time that year. The stroll becomes the first dance associated with rock. In August, The Weavers reassembled for a series of recording sessions for Vanguard.
The group was booked by Vanguard for a January 15th, session to record a rock-and-roll single. In February, Gilbert, Hays, and Hellerman overruled Seeger about recording a cigarette ad for a tobacco company. Seeger opposed the idea as a sell-out to commercial interests. He decided to resign. Seeger honored his commitment to record the jingle and then left the group on March 3rd, Lennon met Paul McCartney on July 6th and added him to the group a few days later.
Following the dance, Paul played a few of his own songs. It was inspirational for John Lennon. White rockers seldom wrote their own music, except perhaps for Buddy Holly. Atlantic Records began to record and release stereo records. Clarence White 13 and his brother Roland 19 started the Kentucky Colonels to join and expand the tradition of Bluegrass music. In England, guitar sales reachedunits. This was up from 5, in due, in large part, to the popularity of Lonnie Donegan and Skiffle Music.
Sales were not good initially but the iconic shaped guitar eventually found a home in electric blues. On February 6th, George Harrison was invited to watch the Quarrymen. Harrison joined the band as lead guitarist shortly after. Elvis Presley is inducted into the Army in March for a two-year hitch overseas.
The author of poetry, translations, fiction, theatre, art criticism, and film narration is best known for A Coney Island of the Mind New York: New Directions,a collection of poems that has been translated into nine languages, with sales over 1, copies. Gibson introduced the ES is an attempt to find a middle ground — a warmer tone than a solid body but still capable of producing little or no feedback.
They paved the way for the s. He cuts the tour short and is blackballed by American radio and television. Billboard magazine begins the Hotexpanding the Pop Charts to allow more records to become certified hits.
The power chord first appears in records by guitarists Link Wray and Eddie Cochran. During the summer, some of the Gibson Goldtop models were replaced with a new sunburst finish. It had been brewing with French involvement for years but saw a ramp-up of American advisors and servicemen in Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens and J.
Holly had assembled a band for the winter tour made up of Tommy Allsup on guitar, Carl Bunch on drums and Waylon Jennings on bass, to be billed as The Crickets. Waylon Jennings gave up his seat on the small plane to go by bus. Alan Freed is its main target and becomes its biggest casualty, as he is found guilty and taken off the air as a result. Radio stations respond by voluntarily putting severe restrictions on what they will play, including widely adopting the Top 40 format which limits how many songs are approved for airing.
The rock instrumental has its biggest year ever in response to rock music facing bans for lyrical content. The concept was to elevate the music of the people to greater public prominence.
Byhe had freed himself of a decade-long heroin addiction and emerged a stronger musician. His sound had evolved to include a Harmon mute wah-wah mute held close to the microphone. He frequently chose songs from the Great American Songbook as starting points for improvisation. Hard bop was a departure from cool jazz with a harder beat and blues-inspired roots. Inthe US House of Representatives voted to 0, passing a resolution to honor Kind of Blue as a national treasure.
During a recording session for the US Armed Services in New York City at the Birdland nightclub, he stepped outside the front of the club during a break. Kilduff grabbed him and put him under arrest. Witnesses said the policeman used a nightstick to punch Davis in the stomach without provocation. Two detectives held back the crowd while a third came up behind Davis and beat him about the head. Davis was taken to jail and charged with assaulting an officer. He was then taken to the hospital and received five stitches.
By Januaryhe was acquitted of disorderly conduct and third-degree assault. It will eventually become the most successful black-owned and operated company in American history, not just in music, with million records sold. Gibson shipped Les Paul Bursts during the year. After being fired from the club, the girl was arrested on a prostitution charge and Berry was arrested under the Mann Act. By the late s, folk music was surging and McCarthyism fading. A recent fatal human disease was identified and carefully documented in the Congo.
It would later become known throughout the world as HIV. The drummer for the tour was Tommy Moore. The Beatles invited Pete Best to become their drummer on August 12th. On November 21st, Harrison was deported for having lied to the German authorities about his age. A week later, after setting a condom on fire which they had hung on a nail at the Bambi Kino where they had been livingMcCartney and Pete Best were arrested for arson and deported. The reunited group played an engagement on December 17th at the Casbah Club, with Chas Newby on bass.
Gibson ships Les Paul Bursts before ceasing production of the model. The model is described in the Gibson catalog as the Les Paul Standard. In September, the FCC banned Payola — the common practice of record companies paying radio disc jockeys to play their new releases.
The payment was not always in dollars. Searle is the first and only pharmaceutical company to sell an oral contraceptive and gain a lucrative monopoly. The pharmaceutical industry suddenly awoke to the substantial market for effective contraception and 13 major drug companies nine of them American began work to develop their own versions of the Pill. The sexual revolution began.
Kennedy by Executive Order Eichmann was charged with 15 counts of war crimes, crimes against humanity, crimes against the Jewish people and membership in a hostile organization. The charges accused Eichmann of being responsible for the enslavement, starvation, persecution, transportation and murder of millions of Jews as well as the deportation of hundreds of thousands of Poles and Gypsies.
The trial was intended to shed light on the horror and reality of the Holocaust. The resulting press helped educate the world about the Third Reich. Three judges found Eichmann guilty on all 15 counts. On December 15th, Eichmann was sentenced to death see April 12th: The Soviets launched the first man into space.
On the spacecraft Vostok 1, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to enter space and the first to orbit the Earth. Kennedy became president, The Bay of Pigs Invasion began. The Cuban armed forces trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations defeated the invaders within thee days.
When the Berliners awoke, they found themselves settled on the side of the border they had slept on. The Berlin Wall stood for nearly 3 decades. September 26th: Television presented the first Presidential debates for public scrutiny and entertainment, Richard M. Nixon vs John F. FM broadcasts begin in the United States. A new Les Paul Standard is introduced by Gibson. The double-cutaway design will later be renamed the Les Paul SG. Here he transformed himself from a singer to a songwriter.
He wrote the tune at age 19 in For those that could manage to learn and play it well, it was a passport to folk club bookings. May 29th: Adolf Eichmann was hanged, cremated and his ashes scattered at sea. Stuart Sutcliffe dies from a brain hemorrhage.
September: James Meredith won a lawsuit to secure admission to the segregated University of Mississippi. He first tried to enter the campus on September 20th, then the 25th, and again on the 26th. Johnson, Jr. Students and other whites began rioting that afternoon. They threw rocks and fired on the U.
Marshals guarding Meredith at Lyceum Hall. Two people, including a French journalist, were killed; 28 marshals had gunshot wounds, and others were injured. Kennedy responded by sending regular US Army forces to restore law and order. Meredith began classes the day after the troops arrived. During the Cold War and following the Bay of Pigs Operation, the Cuban and Soviet governments secretly began to build bases in Cuba for medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles giving them the ability to strike most of the continental United States.
By late there were more than U. On October 14th an Air Force U-2 plane established photographic proof of Soviet missile bases under construction in Cuba.
The period that followed is generally regarded as the time the Cold War was closest to becoming a nuclear conflict. It also marked the first instance of the threat of Mutual Assured Destruction M. The U. Through secret communications initiated by Khrushchev, a proposal evolved to resolve the crisis.
The confrontation ended on October 28th when President John F. The Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba subject to United Nations verification — in exchange for a US agreement never to invade Cuba. Secretly, the US also agreed to dismantle all U.
The blockade ended at pm EDT on November 20th. An additional result of the crisis was a Hotline Agreement and a direct communications link between Moscow and Washington, D.
The album was recorded in front of a live audience in the Decca studio. Kennedy that day. President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22nd in Dallas, Texas.
Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime but was murdered two days later by Jack Ruby before he could be put on trial. Kennedy was shot. By the end of the first week of release, the album had sold more thancopies. The way was clear for the Beatles to launch an American tour. Chuck Berry was released from prison. The Twist craze was diminishing and record companies began to shift toward the surf music boom.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Estimates of the number of participants varied frompolice to overleaders of the march. The song became an anthem for the Civil Rights Movement.
This was the first pickup suitable for acoustic guitar. Billboard Chart. It held that position for sven weeks. The single sold 1, copies in the first two weeks. February 7th: The Beatles took off for the United States.
Approximately 74, viewers — almost half of the American population — watched the group perform on the show. Sam Cooke is shot and beaten to death by a motel manager in Los Angeles. Cooke, wearing only a sport coat and shoes, was chasing a young woman who had fled his room with his clothes after he had assaulted her.
He was pronounced dead when police arrived. Spector refused to cut the song to the under 3-minute time required for radio. Instead, the last two digits of the running time were reversed to appear as It took programming directors weeks to discover why shows were suddenly running long.
The music was a compilation of styles he had absorbed in his many travels including the study of the Arab oud. To deal with the mystique and modal approach of the oud, he devised the open tuning DADGAD, now common in acoustic folk music. Early solid-state preamplifiers are released in Japan, manufactured by Nippon Gakki Yamaha. Dolby A noise reduction is developed for the professional recording market by Dolby laboratories, reducing the background hiss on tape recordings.
The audience did not respond well. It was the beginning of an international trend that was picked up by many of the fashion designers of the day, including Yves St. The new Mod look seemed a natural extension of fashion following the development of the birth control pill.
Squier Company, and also acquired Electro-Music Inc. The group was manufactured by producers at NBC and fed carefully crafted hit songs that were heavily promoted on radio and the new music media — television. The Pre-Fab Four were very successful. FOIA is a federal law allowing the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the United States government.
The Act went into effect the following year. Louis published the research of William H. Masters and Virginia E. Johnson, Human Sexual Response. Evidence emerged of a new disease in the United States. The symptoms would later be related to earlier records from the Congo. The virus had not been isolated nor named. Charles Kaman had developed groundbreaking helicopter technologies and turned his creative juices toward guitars.
He felt that guitars could be improved by a different body cavity made of Lyrachord a version of fiberglass. The new round backed instruments hit a chord with the space-race conscious public and Ovation Guitars were born. This was the first widely promoted festival of Rock Music and regarded as the beginning of the Summer of Love. The festival helped place California at the center of the music counterculture and became a template for future rock festivals.
June 12th: The U. Supreme Court unanimously ended laws against interracial marriage. Clive Davis became president of Columbia records. Inspired by what he witnessed and heard, he began to sign Folk-Rock and Rock bands to Columbia. He viewed the new sound as the future of popular music.
Columbia doubled its market share within three years. June 17th: After only 26 months of development, China successfully detonated a hydrogen bomb. The estimated viewing audience was , McLuhan was a professor of English literature, a literary critic, a rhetorician and a communication theorist. On July 23rd, Detroit police vice squad officers executed a raid on an after-hours drinking club in the predominantly black neighborhood at 12th Street and Clairmount Avenue. They found 82 people holding a party for two returning Vietnam veterans.
The officers arrested everyone at the scene. As the police left, a small group lifted up the bars of an adjacent clothing store and broke the windows. The vandalism expanded to looting and arson. Fires spread through the Northwest end of Detroit and then crossed to the East end. Within 48 hours, the National Guard was called out. See The complex harmonies were secular in nature and told tales of grief or love. This notion is customarily offered as an inspiration of the Baroque.
The move toward a populist conception of the function of ecclesiastical art is seen by many art historians as driving the innovations of Caravaggio and the Carracci brothers, all of whom were working in Rome at that time.
The appeal of the Baroque style shifted consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It used direct, simple, obvious, and dramatic iconography.
Baroque art drew on certain broad and heroic tendencies in Annibale Carracci and his circle and flourished with artists such as Caravaggio, and Federico Barocci. Germinal ideas of the Baroque can also be found in the work of Michelangelo and Correggio.
Baroque music used contrasting phrase lengths, harmony and counterpoint replacing polyphony and orchestral color made a stronger appearance. During the Baroque period, a 5th course of two strings was added, and several publications especially for guitarists were produced.
At the end of the Baroque period, the courses were replaced by single strings, and a final string was added to create the six-stringed guitar of today. In Europe, musicians and artists were generally supported by the church, the state and the rich.
This patronage system had been practiced in Italy for hundreds of years, Including the late s and early s, when Michelangelo worked as a sculptor and artist for the Medici family in Florence.
During the Baroque period the 5 course guitar effectively replaced the 4 and 6 course vihuela instruments, and the tuning was largely standardized with notable exceptions to ADGBE.
Note that this matches the current standard tuning of the top 5 strings. In his notes and papers was the formula for equal temperament by Chu Tsai-yu from The timing was perfect — equal temperament was the issue of the day with advancements in harmony and composition.
It would be many years before the issues were fully resolved, and the refined scale was hotly debated. It was not until the era of Beethoven that the equally tempered scale was fully adopted by Western composers.
Charles was a guitar player as well. Corbetta was dedicated to Louis XIV. It served to increase the popularity of the guitar. Newton demonstrated that the motions of objects on earth and celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws.
This removed remaining doubts about heliocentrism see and set the stage for advances in the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. He had been an apprentice to Nicolo Amati, and created some of the most treasured violins in history during his golden period — and As a luthier, he fashioned many different types of instruments, including a very small number of guitars between and Surviving examples are maple backed and have ebony fretboards and inlays and a scale length of 74 cm.
He is said to have built or collaborated on more than 1, instruments total. Approximately instruments survive today. He is noted for various innovations in harpsichord construction and especially for the invention of the piano. Nor is it to be denied that after the pinching way, the ghittar makes some good work. The mechanical action had hammers that tapped the heavy string courses and a shift so the hammer would play only one of the two strings for lower volume.
The idea was not immediately popular in Italy. Harpsichord players found the touch difficult to master and were not comfortable with the unfamiliar tone. While still tightly linked to the court culture and absolutism, with its formality and emphasis on order and hierarchy, the new style was cleaner, and favored a clearer division between parts, brighter contrasts and colors, and simplicity rather than complexity.
This taste for structural clarity worked its way into the world of music, moving away from the layered polyphony of the Baroque period, towards a style where a melody over a subordinate harmony — a combination called homophony — was preferred. This meant that the playing of chords, even if they interrupted the melodic smoothness of a single part, became a much more prevalent feature of music.
This, in turn, made the tonal structure of works more audible. Changes in the economic and in social structure also moved the new style forward. As the 18th century progressed, the nobility became the primary patrons of instrumental music, and there was a rise in the public taste for comic opera. This led to changes in the way music was performed, the most crucial of which was the move to standard instrumental groups and the reduction in the importance of the continuo — the harmonic fill beneath the music, often played by several instruments.
One way to trace this decline of the continuo and its figured chords is to examine the decline of the term obbligato meaning a mandatory instrumental part in a work of chamber music. Bythe term was virtually extinct. Beethoven is also sometimes regarded either as a Romantic composer or a composer who was part of the transition to the Romantic; Franz Schubert is also something of a transitional figure.
Bach tried one of his pianos but did not like the heavy touch and weak treble. Serious works for the guitar were few and far between during the rise of the new piano and the Classical Period. The guitar assumed the role of an instrument of polite society for the amorous and frivolous. The piece is enthusiastically received. Bach dies. Many view this as the end of the Baroque Period. The popularity of guitar grows throughout Europe.
He is viewed by many as the most influential figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western music. He studied under Joseph Haydn and gained a reputation as a virtuoso pianist as a young man. His hearing began to deteriorate in the late s, and yet he continued to perform, conduct and compose even after becoming completely deaf.
The Vinaccia family of luthiers is known for developing the mandolin. This guitar has been examined and does not show telltale signs of modifications from a double-course guitar.
The authenticity of guitars allegedly produced before the s is often in question. The movement was led by the French and the Italians. Spain, for the most part, continued with 6-course instruments. The absolute French monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic Clergy was violently overthrown and replaced with a government formed under the Enlightenment and based on principals of citizenship and inalienable rights.
The transition was not smooth. Following the French Revolution, property confiscated from the aristocracy by the Committee for the Public Safety included dozens of guitars. To many, this marks the beginning of the Romantic Period. On February 12th, Abraham Lincoln was also born. In the morning, as the smoke cleared, he saw the American flag still waving. The new arrangement was especially appropriate to the patriotic fervor of the time and became widely popular. This was a period of political and intellectual upheaval.
Science and art flourished. Romantic Music refers to the theory, compositional practice, and canon in European music history, from about to It is more appropriate to describe romanticism as the expansion of formal structures within a composition, making the pieces more emotionally expressive. Because of the particular use of these elements of form, key, instrumentation, etc.
For example, Beethoven favored a smooth transition from the 3rd to 4th movement in his symphonies, and therefore his pieces are easier to identify. This made public performance possible. His modest storefront housed limited guitar production in the back room and retail space selling everything from cornets to sheet music. Samuel Colt perfected the 1st handgun with a revolving cylinder: the legendary 6-shooter. April 24th, a patent for the 1st soda fountain machine.
December 3rd: Oberlin College Ohio was founded — the 1st American co-educational college and later, Aint No Cure For Love - Leonard Cohen - Songs From The Life Of Leonard Cohen (VHS) 1st American college to advocate the abolition of slavery and accept black men and women on equal terms with whites. This is the version most often sung today. The original lyrics grew from a collaboration between minister John Newton and poet William Cowper, also a born-again Christian.
It was defended by Texans including James Bowie, Col. William B. Travis and Tennessean Davy Crocket. He placed emphasis on the action of the soundboard in producing volume and tone. To improve the instrument he enlarged the body and refined a pattern of fan bracing still used today. His preferred scale length was cm. Many of his improvements are considered the standards of the classical guitar today.
His innovations resulted in the formation of the Spanish School of Guitar Making whose membership included the most important luthiers of the late 19th century, including the Ramirez family. Martin, Sr. The New York Philharmonic was founded, now the oldest orchestra in the U. Originally known as The Philharmonic Society of New York some feel that actual date of establishment is One year later, bathtubs were still prohibited in Boston except when prescribed by a physician.
Later popularized in arrangements by Aaron Copland Martin introduces the 0 model. This made tall buildings and skyscrapers possible. This also made truss rods possible. It was a seminal work in scientific literature and arguably the pivotal work in evolutionary biology.
The sixth edition of shortened the title to The Origin of Species. It introduced the theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. John Brown at Fort Warren in Boston. His songs, such as Oh! This was followed in by the 5 cent nickel —quarter dollar, half dollar, silver dollar and gold dollars.
An law allowed the motto to be used on all coins. Inthe use of the motto was permitted, but not required. While several laws came into play, the act of May 18th, is most often cited as requiring the motto even though the cent and nickel were excluded from that law, and the nickel did not have the motto added until Sinceall coins have borne the motto.
The Civil War had officially ended. Booth hoped to create chaos and overthrow the Federal government. Although Booth succeeded in killing Lincoln, the larger plot failed. As the retail gateway to the west and mail-order capitol of the world, musical instrument manufacturers and distributors were seriously affected. Many never recovered. Those that survived grew stronger. He was a musical prodigy, guitar virtuoso and composer of numerous timeless pieces for guitar.
His groundbreaking playing and performance techniques propelled the popularity of the classical guitar forward and inspired equal leaps in instrument design. Sales records of the 00 guitar begin to appear on the books. Three different versions of pianos that played themselves were demonstrated at the Philadelphia Exposition. They would eventually become player pianos. It had two diaphragm-and-needle units; one for recording, and one for playback. He could speak into a reverse horn and the sound vibrations were then impressed into delicate tin foil wrapped on a metal cylinder by a recording needle in vertical grooves.
The hand cranked phonograph is demonstrated by Edison on November 29th, The phonograph will eventually allow the spread of popular music. The Academy represented the highest social circle in New York society and the board of Aint No Cure For Love - Leonard Cohen - Songs From The Life Of Leonard Cohen (VHS) resisted admitting members of new wealthy families into their inner circle. The initial group of subscribers included the Morgan, Roosevelt, Astor and Vanderbilt families.
Their creation, The Metropolitan Opera, has outlasted the Academy. Higginson would run the Orchestra for almost 40 years. Yiddish theater begins its period of greatest popularity and influence. The strings are melodically picked and stopped by a metal bar, with the guitar held across the lap.
The Berne Convention, the international agreement on copyrights, is signed. The United States does not sign the agreement until It was the first reasonably viable phonograph record.
Berliner was a German-American inventor best known for inventing the lateral-cut flat disc record: gramophone record to be used with another of his inventions — the Gramophone.
Gibson at 34 years old, settled in Kalamazoo, Michigan and took up the hobby of making musical instruments. Horse drawn carriages lined the streets for a quarter mile and inside the Music Hall was a capacity crowd.
At the end of the 19th Century the classical guitar had lost popularity but was re-introduced to the world by Francisco Tarrega, who began the tradition adopted by almost all classical guitarists of today by using the finger-nails to pick the strings.
The event was conceived and promoted by James B. Upham as a campaign to instill American nationalism by selling flags to public schools and magazines to students. Bellamy was a Baptist minister and a Christian socialist. Phonographs are improving but are still a long way away from being commercial. On May 11th Orville Gibson filed for his first and only patent. The document U. Patent No. The creation of the first large Sears and Roebuck Co. This made possible nationwide distribution of all sorts of products including musical instruments by postal service.
Storyville the famed red light district of New Orleans opens. It was named after New Orleans alderman Sidney Story. The Ragtime craze is at full tilt. The first effective player piano was released to the public and heavily marketed.
This would bring piano roll versions of many forms of music into American households over the next 20 years. Stark and Joplin remain friends for years. Horn players imitate the human voice with mutes and growls.
New Orleans players are playing a mix of Blues, Ragtime, brass band music, marches, Pop songs and dances. The Jazz stew is brewing.
Some musicians are beginning to improvise Pop songs. The end of the Spanish-American war has brought a surplus of used military band instruments into the port of New Orleans. Migrations from the south into Chicago, Detroit, Pittsburgh, etc. Luthier Robert Maurer decided to retire. August Larson gathered investors Edward P. Longworthy and Joshua H. Lewis and bought the firm from Maurer. It was the beginning of the Larson Brothers instruments.
Andrew Carnegie sold his industrial holdings to J. A hurricane and tidal wave hit Galveston. Texas on September 8th. The highest point of land on the island was 5 feet above sea level. There was no advance warning and the only access to the mainland was by boat. By the time the residents and visitors knew the danger, there was no means of escape. There were so many bodies, they were taken out to sea and dumped.
The bodies later washed back up onto the Galveston shores and were burned. This event became the topic of many songs over the next century. In New York City, in an August heat-wave, tensions between white Irish and black Southern immigrants flared into riots at the funeral of a white Irish plain-cloths police officer who had been cut by a black man protecting his girl-friend from harassment. Among those beaten in the riots were Vaudevillian actor, comic, dancer and musician George Walker as he walked with a friend named Shine.
The introduction to the song is needed to get the original intent of the song. He is beginning to be noticed in New Orleans as a brothel piano player. He is one of the first to play this mix forerunner of Jazz. Jelly Roll will later claim that he invented Jazz in by combining Ragtime, Quadrilles and Blues.
The phonograph has been drastically improved. Victor and Columbia emerge as leaders in the phonograph field at that time phonograph companies made records. The public started to buy phonographs and records cylinders for home use. Adams, Samuel K. VanHorn, and Orville H. Handy has started a saxophone quartet. The saxophone was a novelty in Frank Henry Martin introduces the size guitar.
This size body is made to compete with mandolins and banjos. The company designs its first Style 45 guitar. The flight lasted 12 seconds and covered feet. Handy hears the rural blues played on a slide guitar with a knife blade as a slide by an itinerant blues guitarist in a railroad station in Tutwiler, Mississippi.
It sparks a career for him. The rest is history. A partnership is formed. New Orleans blues trumpet pioneer Buddy Bolden runs amok and is committed to the state hospital at Angola on June 5.
Buddy will spend the rest of his life there and will never be recorded. Keppard was not recorded until many years later because he was afraid of having his style stolen. Columbia produces the first two-sided disc. Blues publishing pioneer W. Handy brings saxophones into his dance band. It lasted for 48 seconds and in some areas the ground moved 20 feet. All civil services were destroyed or heavily damaged. Wood frame, in general, held up better in earthquakes.
It Aint No Cure For Love - Leonard Cohen - Songs From The Life Of Leonard Cohen (VHS) burns. Gas lines were ruptured, ignited, and fires broke out around the ruins of the city. The water lines were also ruptured, so there was little to fight the fires. The population of San Francisco at the time was approximatelyFlorenz Ziegfeld expanded the notion of Vaudeville stage shows to new heights by his elaborate productions known as The Ziegfeld Follies. It was the beginning of a career of more than 5, concerts around the globe and vastly increasing the body of works available for the classical guitar.
Chris J. Knutsen developed Aint No Cure For Love - Leonard Cohen - Songs From The Life Of Leonard Cohen (VHS) new idea, different from his harp guitars: Hawaiian style lap steel guitars that were played with a slide.
These were swept-up in Hawaii and presented to the American public in the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in A new market and style of playing swept the nation.
The first non-American Ragtime sheet music appears in London, England. English musician Vic Filmer begins playing Rags. American black music begins to gain appeal in Europe. The Fox Trot dance craze begins. Ragtime was so popular that it eventually replaced the ballad as Tin Pan Alleys most marketable product.
In January, radio pioneer Lee De Forest experimented with radio by broadcasting two live performances from the stage of the New York Metropolitan Opera with an erratic signal, that could reportedly be heard as far away as Newark, New Jersey.
Music Radio was born. March 25th: Jewish and Italian immigrant women were killed in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Co. They were locked in to prevent them from leaving work early. The first traffic lines were painted on a road by hand near Trenton, Michigan. The sinking resulted in the deaths of over 1, people, making it one of the most costly in terms of lives peacetime maritime disasters in history. Classic Blues singer Bessie Smith begins work as a dancer in a vaudeville show.
Louis Armstrong forms a vocal quartet with some of his boyhood friends in New Orleans. The stride pianists are still playing Ragtime as the New Orleans players did a generation before. So we will see an interesting evolution in their playing over the next few years that parallels the beginning of Jazz in New Orleans.
British musician Vic Filmer brings Ragtime to Paris. An exhibition of avant-garde post-impressionist works was viewed at the 69th Regiment Armory in New York City. The works included Gauguin, Picasso, Duchamp, and others. The public was generally confused. World War I begins on July 28th.
There is a major impetus around this time for the Europeanization of the Blues. Up until now the Blues form varied between Eventually, a 12 bar form based on the chord progression what we know as the Blues today will become standard. This occurred for three reasons: 1 appealed to whites, 2 solved problems understanding, playing and notating the Blues 3 established harmonies and a form for band members to work with.
RCA offers to record Freddie Keppard. He turns them down and misses the chance to be the first Jazz performer to record because he is afraid that his style will be copied. Storyville was shut down during World War I, sending the Jazz musicians up the Mississippi River in search of employment. The first traffic light in the nation was installed in Cleveland Ohio on August 5th.
Epaminondas Strathopoulo takes charge of Epiphone — the House of Strathopoulo. Thomas A. Watson, come here, I want you. He was in San Francisco to inaugurate the first transcontinental telephone service. He will work with Tony Jackson and then Freddie Keppard there. Martin uke production takes off as the ukulele boom begins.
Martin also begins to design and build for Oliver Ditson Co. The first classical guitar performance in a Concert Hall. Andres Segovia performs at Ateneo in Madrid. Before this, no one believed that the guitar had enough volume for a concert venue. Many black bands of the time were probably producing far more authentic and better music. Never the less, the Jazz Age begins. Trumpeter Freddie Keppard had refused the chance to make the first Jazz record because he feared that his style would be copied.
It can be thought of as an impressionistic view of these forms, just as Impressionistic painting gives a novel view of what we normally see. World War I ends on November 11th. On August 21st, at am, Orville H. Gibson died of a disease diagnosed as chronic endocarditis. In this year, 70 blacks are killed by KKK mobs. More than ten of these are soldiers still in uniform.
James Reese Europe and his band known as the th U. They have words because Wright thinks that Europe is treating him unfairly. Europe bleeds to death. Innovative guitarist Charlie Christian is born in Dallas, Texas. His father is a blind guitarist. The 18th Amendment was ratified on January 29th,having been approved by 36 states, and went into effect as Federal law on January 29th, In many respects, prohibition had the opposite of its intended effect.
For example, before prohibition, few, if any women drank in bars. However, women were very likely to drink in speakeasies. Prohibition indirectly helped the cause and image of Jazz.
This kicks off the Classic Blues craze of the s. Over forty prominent New Orleans Jazzmen have moved to Chicago. Somebody discovers that the New York brownstone basement being narrow and running from the main street to back alley is well suited to use as a speakeasy.
In time, the cellars of New York City will become riddled with speakeasies providing numerous opportunities for Jazz musicians. The cabaret business begins in New York. This will eventually be the cause of the shift of Jazz from Chicago to New York. This year marks the beginning of an age of great interest in black arts and music Jazz. The young future Bop players are being born. They will be raised in an era that will allow them to rebel. Thus, Bop will begin in about twenty years.
James P. At any rate, Johnson becomes the pioneer of stride piano with these recordings. Paul Whiteman controls twenty-eight bands on the east coast. The spring-wound talking machine with pre-electrical, no-fidelity sound was established and probably the most popular of the home entertainment devices; the best selling makes were the Victrola and the Graphanola.
He helps redesign and refine the Gibson carved archtop instruments to help increase lagging sales. His designs have become the standards to which all other carved instruments strive. He developed the F series mandolins and the L series guitars including the Gibson F-5 mandolin and the Gibson L-5 guitar that has become the most sought after collection instruments of the century.
Ironically, his work was ahead of its time and was not immediately understood or appreciated. Gibson sales did not immediately rise. Comedian Ed Wynn is responsible for creating the first studio audience when he refuses to perform without an audience watching. Lloyd Loar began working on experimental electrostatic pickups at Gibson as a means to amplify the guitar and make it louder and more suitable as a competitor to the banjo for rhythm and increase its potential as a solo instrument.
Ellington makes his first recording on a cylinder — acoustic recording still most used. A Theater Owners Booking Association circuit for almost a quarter-century. Harmony became the largest producer of musical instruments in the US with overunits. This is the band that will be the model for the swing bands of the next decade.
This paved the way for more modern forms of Jazz. Charlie Parker as a child growing up in K. Lloyd Loar leaves Gibson Musical Instruments to start his own company. Rhapsody in Blue, by George Gershwin, was performed for the first time. Gershwin was the piano soloist accompanied by the Paul Whiteman Orchestra.
The National Life and Accident Insurance Company in Nashville, Tennessee, installed a radio station on the 5th floor of their downtown Nashville office building. Blind Lemon Jefferson recorded Aint No Cure For Love - Leonard Cohen - Songs From The Life Of Leonard Cohen (VHS) eighty blues tunes between and and was generally responsible for the surge of popularity in the country blues in this period. One of their discoveries was Blind Blake, a swinging, sophisticated guitarist whose warm relaxed voice was a far cry from harsh country blues.
Charlie Poole developed a three-fingered banjo playing technique after a baseball accident injured his right hand. This technique influenced many banjo players and would later be perfected by Earl Scruggs. In July, Tennessee legislators made it unlawful to teach anything but creationism.
John Scopes, a high school teacher in Dayton, decided to test the law. Henry Ford introduced the 8-hour workday and the 5-day workweek. This was in reaction to the depressed auto industry. Other industrialists were afraid of the precedent but the AFL welcomed the move as a means of controlling overproduction and reducing unemployment. Charles A. Lindbergh flies a Ryan monoplane — named Spirit of St. Louis — on the first solo transatlantic flight and first non-stop fixed-wing aircraft flight between America and mainland Europe on May 20th — May 21st.
The flight was 3, nautical miles 6, kmfrom Long Island to Paris, in The flight was timed by the Longines watch company. Americans will buy more than , phonograph records during this year. He is now setting whole phrases ahead of or behind the beat, not just pulling single notes. This will set the stage for Swing. Armstrong is now a star and because of him, New Orleans style ensemble playing is disappearing and is being replaced by Chicago and New York-style solos.
In short, Jazz is becoming a soloist art primarily because of Armstrong. Bing Crosby joins the Paul Whiteman band. They took the names of everybody that was caught with alcohol. They had already closed a number of the South Side black-and-tans.
Chicago would soon fall as the Jazz capital. John Dopyera invented the resonator guitar in an effort to increase the volume of the 6 stringed instruments to better compete with banjos for the rhythm sections of bands. The partnership only lasted until The first signature series guitar was instigated by the Gibson Company for Nick Lucas — a popular singer and musician of the day. He lives in a caravan near a cemetery. His wife sells silk flowers to support them. One night, Django is trying to remove a rat and he catches the flowers on fire with a candle.
He burns his legs and his left hand badly saving his wife. His left hand never completely healed with two fingers partially paralyzed.
He nevertheless became a great guitarist in months. Walt Disney released the first Mickey Mouse silent film Plane Crazyand later the same year, Steamboat Willythe first animated cartoon with sound. His fiery and romantic performance touched the hearts and imaginations of the public and led to five more sold-out New York City performances and then an equally successful tour of 25 American cities.
Hundreds of young musicians were inspired to take up the versatile and expressive instrument. Martin introduces the OM sized and scaled flat-top guitar. Martin also introduced the first 14 fret neck-body intersection.
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