My heart rate now is 49 bpm. Yes, it can be very normal for young athletic people to have heart rates in the range at rest. Working full time while exercising and caring for two kids will definitely wear anyone out! So which medicines would better reduce his cholesterol levels.
He should discuss with his physician about increasing his atorvastatin to 80mg everyday. If these changes are not enough, then ezetimibe could be considered. Hi am mayra a 31 yr old female i recently have been working out and keeping healthier and doing things during the day and have a 4 and 6 yr old girls so am Pretty busy all day and my pulse is bpm am in amlodophine a very low dose. Im Worried is that normal. I would not be worried about your heart rate, especially since you are able to work-out and keep up with your two young kids.
Lower heart rates can be normal in younger and healthier people, and a heart rate of bpm is just right at the lower limits of normal. Hi Dr Guichard. I typically eat healthy and try to workout mostly walks and weights what else could I possibly do to improve my heart health? It seems like you are doing everything right, your BMI is very good, you eat well, and you exercise.
Your blood pressure is also very good. I would not let a single number resting heart rate bother you, especially since it is within a normal range. Sir my resting heart rate always lies between in bpm when i wake up but after getting ready for my office and for the rest of the day it always lies between bpm.
You should discuss your symptoms with your physician. I would suggest an exercise regimen as a way to improve your cardiovascular fitness and most likely lower your resting heart rate. Good info, thanks. What would be a good heart rate at rest for a 76 year old male? A good resting heart rate for you would be beats per minute. Yes, that heart rate can be normal for you a heart rate between bpm is normal — but maybe not ideal. I will say that, in general, your heart rate is on the higher-side of normal for a female of your age.
If possible, starting a structured mild-to-moderate regular exercise routine would be beneficial to improve your overall cardiorespiratory fitness and achieve a lower resting heart rate.
Improved dietary changes along with weight loss can also improve markers of overall cardiorespiratory fitness. Hi i am a 55 year old white male lbs… i do have mild emphysema from 44 years of smoking and working hard on quiting. A heart rate increase with exertion is normal and, in your case, may also be due to hypoxia while ambulating due to your underlying COPD. The fact that your heart rate returns to baseline means you have appropriate heart rate recovery.
However, an increase in heart rate with such mild exertion is somewhat concerning. This shows that your cardiorespiratory fitness is quite poor. You should talk to your doctor about cardiopulmonary rehab and ways to improve your overall fitness.
The heart rate changes you are currently experiencing are not necessarily concerning for heart failure. My HR at rest is around Should I get it checked out? And if so where should I go? PS: I feel fine when I reach this level though. Hey Chris, thank you for your question! Your resting heart rate at 43 bpm is excellent and is likely related to your optimal physical conditioning. You should know that HR monitors, especially the wrist-type, can be erroneous and I would manually check your HR to confirm the results.
However, if you confirm that high of a heart rate with manual checking then you probably need to be evaluated by a physician. You could have an underlying arrhythmia that needs addressing. Your primary care physician would the place to start, who might then refer you to a cardiologist. You would likely be given a heart monitor to professionally monitor your heart during the day and with exercise, which would allow for further investigation of rapid heart rates.
My heart rate is I feel very scary. I checked by a MD doctor. He saidI am suffering from fibromyalgia. I would have to defer any decisions to the physician that evaluated you, but if you are unhappy with their evaluation, you can always get a second opinion. I work out every other day. My routine includes 20 min of strength training and 15 min of HIIT training on the treadmill at 3 speed for a min and 7 for 30 seconds.
I have been doing this workout for about a year now. My concern is my resting heart rate is 93 bpm which it has been for years. All of my labs are normal except I am prediabetic. I am going for a stress test and echo this week. Has anyone else experienced this and what was your outcome? Yes, I would also expect your resting heart rate to be a little lower given your age and exercise routine — however, between beats per minute is normal.
I would assume you have had an ECG that was interpreted by a physician and was normal. A stress test and echo may be appropriate, would suggest an exercise stress test treadmill or bicycleto observe your heart rate and rhythm response to exercise.
Yes, hyperthyroidism can be a cause of an elevated heart rate and can be easily diagnosed by a simple blood test. If all your labs were normal, I would have assumed they tested for hyperthyroidism, but maybe not and you should check with your physician to be sure. Im 23 years old i noticed when im sleeping my heart rate is around 46 to 58 beats per minute. I notice this when i went to the e. Is it normal. I really don exercise that much. Im pounds. Sometimes my restibg heart rate when im laying down is 54 to 65 beats per min I dont use drugs.
I usally just drink sometimes. I went to the e. All test where good. I went for acid reflux. But i notice this while i was thrre. And this has happem when i been fully awake. I only have high cholesterol its around total. This is likely due to your underlying COPD. However, you should be evaluated for sleep apnea which could be causing your SatO2 to be low when you are sleeping. With that many imaging studies completed, you are probably low risk for lung cancer.
Thank you very much for your questions! I am a healthy athletic 46 y. I have found that a dozen or so times throughout the night my heart rate goes from 40 bpm to 70 or higher. Is this considered normal or should ones heart rate stay within a few bpm throughout the night? Thanks for your time. Yes, that kind of variability during the night can be normal. This variation likely tracks with your stages of sleep throughout the night.
I usually see sleeping heart rate between 54 — I walk miles almost every day, intensity varying but never over bpm. I was wondering if it dropping to 47 while sleeping was anything to worry about. I did have some breathing issues last night while I walked but I thought it was the acid reflux and cold weather. Other info: they diagnosed me with malnourishment a year ago due to a restricted diet food intolerancesso I have low iron though borderline anemiclow calcium at a 9 out of 10and they just figured out my pancytopenia might be caused by my low folate level.
Yes, a heart rate of 47 while you sleep can be completely normal. Sounds like you are getting your nutritional deficiencies addressed, which will be a good thing. Any comment Sir? I would recommend continued close follow-up with your endocrinologist.
There is variability with a normal resting heart rate, but it normally falls between beats per minute, your heart rate falls just outside of the normal upper range. I would continue to monitor your heart rate before you sleep and when you wake up, and monitor for any potential heart symptoms throughout the day.
I would also recommend an exercise program to improve your cardiovascular fitness and a dietary program to achieve your estimated ideal body weight or a BMI betweenif that applies to you. If you have any symptoms or exercise intolerance, then it may be a good idea to be evaluated by a physician. And also once while resting I felt my heart beat harder in my chest, then out of nowhere it started speeding up from to to all while still lying down, this occurred along with pins and needles in hands and feet.
To answer your first question, yes, that can be normal. It is normal to have that kind of heart rate variability during the day, even with excellent physical conditioning. With regards to your second question, it is difficult to say what was going on during your tachycardia episode. It sounds like an episode of a supraventricular tachycardia SVTbut could be a number of different things. If the tachycardia episodes increase in frequency or duration, then an evaluation by a physician could be considered.
SVTs are not life-threatening and there are very good treatment options, most of the options are curative, for patients who are symptomatic with their SVT.
His resting heart beat is usually around 60 bpm. His problem is having extreme fatigue with no obvious reason all of a sudden during the day. When it happens he has to sleep. I checked his heartbeat when he is having one of those moment. It was 42 bpm. As I said he is not doing any exercise, not at all. But I wonder why his heartbeat is all of a sudden becomes 42 when he is having extreme low energy.
I am not sure if he is having low energy because of low heartbeat or heart beat is going down because of the fatigue. I guess my question is does low heartbeat indicate that there is something wrong in heart? It can be normal to have a heart rate of 40 bpm during sleep, however, in most cases, it is abnormal to have a heart rate of 40 bpm during the day with activity. My guess is that the low heart rate is causing him to feel tired and fatigued.
I think it would be worthwhile to schedule an appointment with a physician for an evaluation history and physical, ECG, basic laboratory work, thyroid function tests, etc.
These tests would provide more information about his daily heart rate and rhythm, chronotropic competence i. All of this information would hopefully shed some light on these symptomatic bradycardia episodes. No, your heart rate is not too low. It sounds like your heart rate has dropped due to your increased physical conditioning, and probably losing some body weight as well. A low heart rate will be of concern only if you are having symptoms e.
If you feel fine, then your reduced heart rate is likely due to the positive and beneficial neurohormonal changes from your exercise routine. What is the difference between the minimum heart rate and the average resting heart rate? I have a wrist exercise band with a HR monitor. It tells me that my minimum heart rate is between 38 — 53 and my average resting HR is I am 48 year old male, cm, 60 kgs. I am not sure how your wrist exercise band determines your heart rate parameters.
Your minimum heart rate is the lowest rate single number of your heart beat and your average heart rate is the average single number of your heart beat, not sure why you have a range for each one. Having a range of heart rates seems to be confusing. I am 35 years old suffering from anxity and hypertension. Currently I am under medication. I have habit checking heart rate through my mobile app. Most of the time it would be between 60 to I do brick walk for 45 minutes and 5 days in a week for past 3 months.
Now I observed some time during night before sleep and morning just after sleep my heart rate falling between 53 to Yes, it is normal for your heart rate to fall at night while you sleep and still remain low until you wake up. Your heart rate will then increase during the day and with activity.
This would be considered normal heart rate variability, which can also be somewhat exaggerated in young people less than 40 years of age.
I had a mild heart attack last yr. In your case, a low heart rate would be concerning if it is causing symptoms. Otherwise, low heart rates can be well tolerated. Sometimes heart rate machines will report a low heart rate, but it is actually not low, one cause could be frequent PVCs.
I would suggest monitoring your heart rate manually, and recording it periodically throughout the day, this information will be helpful for your physician. One issue I have had is when my heart or whatever is the problem feels in a strange mood, it takes me a very long term to get my heart rate down if I have been walking or exercising.
It was between 95 and when I was in bed all that time. Yet when I went ten pin bowling on 7th November it was 69 five minutes after I had finished.
I was walking on Tuesday and Strong Heart - Various - Motivational 1 (CD) was normal, on Wednesday it was and took an hour and a half to return to normal levels. My heart rate has been unstable since early October with palpitations on and off, dizzy spells on and off, flutters in the chest on and off, a wobbly heart rate, an erratic and unpredictable heart rate.
I am fine some days and others I am not. I get sharp stabbing pains in the center of my chest, my heart area and a warm burning feel in the center of my chest. I have gone over bpm since 19th October on 26th October with andon 12th November withandon 30th November with and 3rd December with Thank you very much for sharing your current health concerns. I would recommend discussing your symptom and heart rate logs with your physician. Further investigation and data gathering may be required.
Hi I am Narendra a nd my age is In resting position at night my pulse rate is 77 rpm and during day time working time my pulse rate becomes Yes, that can be normal heart rate variability.
However, if you have a sedentary job, a heart rate of while working is a little higher than would be expected. If you have a mild-to-moderately active job, then a heart rate of while working would be somewhat expected. It all depends upon how much activity you are experiencing throughout you work day. I am 38 years old, general good health but a bit out of shape and overweight working on it!
Yes, this is very normal for someone your age and can be somewhat exaggerated in someone with anemia. Your heart rate recovery i. I am a 57 year old male with a rhr in the 50 to 60 range I am trying to train for a half marathon. In the past when my hr got above I would slow down During my last half my hr got up to to and I slowed down to avoid any problems. The calculation formula gave me a value of which seems good. What is the problem with going up to to during a race?
The age-predicted maximal heart rate would be bpm and for a year-old person, I would recommend not going above bpm during your exercise sessions. A heart rate of for a year-old is very fast and unlikely to be driven by the sinus node, was this detected manually or with a heart rate monitor? I would recommend checking your pulse manually because heart rate monitors can sometimes be erroneous.
The max calculations for someone my age really scare me. I do suck a lot of air near the end but no leg cramps or dizzy effects have been running this four times a year and usually run 2. Do not want to damage heart tissue but really enjoy this test? The first question would be how are you measuring your heart rate?
Heart rate monitors are notoriously inaccurate, you would have to double check your heart rate measurements manually over a minute to get a true reading. But yes, a heart rate of bpm is higher than your predicted maximal heart rate of bpm, which is why I am skeptical of the measurement. This is a safe zone for high-intensity exercise given your age. Congratulations for your exercise accomplishments!
I am a 29 year old, inactive, female. My resting heart rate has been average of 58, dipping as low as 52, the past week. When I stand up and walk quickly, my heart rate jumps to Do you think this is cause for concern? Some research has led me to believe a possibility of hypothyroidism- thoughts? Your heart rates at rest and with exertion can be normal. It is normal to have an increase in heart rate when standing, and moving around will certainly do it as well. I would not be overly concerned about hypothyroidism, unless you are having additional symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism.
However, hypothyroidism is very easy to test for and would discuss with your physician. First of all thank you for answering so many questions, i am 34, male, 68 kgs. Lately, i have been feeling dizzy sometimes with my resting heart rate between bpm while i am sitting and working on my laptop. When i wake up from sleep it is around bpm. I have started jogging everyday since past few days, however i have a constant feeling that something is wrong with my heart, what is the reason that i am having this feeling, is it because of the dizziness?
I am not sure, those types of feelings are very non-specific so it is difficult to say for sure what could be going on. If it continues, then you can discuss your symptoms with your physician. I am also taking 40mg propanalol a day for anxiety. I have notice over the past few days that whilst resting, my heart rate occasionally dips between usually around 56 is this normal?
Should I consider not taking the propanalol?! Hello ,sorry to bother. Yes, overweight but working on that. But when active and moving around is within the normal range and sometimes above when very active. I do not workout nor am I an athlete. Sometimes very randomly I will have a heart palpitation. ISBN International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy. American Lung Association. Psychological Bulletin. Health Psychology.
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Lastly it is a limited resource that can be depleted but can strengthen over time". Self-control is also a key concept in the general theory of crimea major theory in criminology. Gottfredson and Hirschi define self-control as the differential tendency of individuals to avoid criminal acts independent of the situations in which they find themselves. Temperanceor sophrosynehas been described as a virtue by philosophers and religious thinkers, from Plato and Aristotle to the present day, and more recently by psychologists, particularly in the positive psychology movement.
Desire is an affectively charged motivation toward a certain object, person, or activity, but not limited to, that associated with pleasure or relief from displeasure. A desire becomes a temptation when it impacts or enters the individual's area of self-control, if the behavior resulting from the desire conflicts with an individual's values or other self-regulatory goals. New research looked at what people desire in real world settings. Over one week, 7, self-reports of desires were collected and indicated significant differences in desire frequency and strength, degree of conflict between desires and other goals, and the likelihood of resisting desire and success of the resistance.
The most common and strongly experienced desires are those related to bodily needs like eating, drinking, and sleeping. Desires that conflict with overarching goals or values are known as temptations. Counteractive Self-Control Theory states that when presented with such a dilemma, we lessen the significance of the instant rewards while momentarily increasing the importance of our overall values.
When asked to rate the perceived appeal of different snacks before making a decision, people valued health bars over chocolate bars. However, when asked to do the rankings after having chosen a snack, there was no significant difference of appeal.
Further, when college students completed a questionnaire prior to their course registration deadline, they ranked leisure activities as less important and enjoyable than when they filled out the survey after the deadline passed. The stronger and more available the temptation is, the harsher the devaluation will be. One of the most common self-control dilemmas involves the desire for unhealthy or unneeded food consumption versus the desire to maintain long-term health.
An indication of unneeded food could also be over expenditure on certain types of consumption such as eating away from home. Not knowing how much to spend, or overspending one's budget on eating out can be a symptom of a lack of self control. Experiment participants rated a new snack as significantly less healthy when it was described as very tasty compared to when they heard it was just slightly tasty.
Without knowing anything else about a food, the mere suggestion of good taste triggers counteractive self-control and prompted them to devalue the temptation in the name of health. Further, when presented with the strong temptation of one large bowl of chips, participants both perceived the chips to be higher in calories and ate less of them than did participants who faced the weak temptation of three smaller chip bowls, even though both conditions represented the same amount of chips overall.
Weak temptations are falsely perceived to be less unhealthy, so self-control is not triggered and desirable actions are more often engaged in, supporting the counteractive self-control theory. The decrease in an individual's liking of and desire for a substance following repeated consumption of that substance is known as satiation. Satiation rates when eating depend on interactions of trait self-control and healthiness of the food.
Those with low trait self-control satiated at the same pace regardless of health value. Further, when reading a description emphasizing the sweet flavor of their snack, participants with higher trait self-control reported a decrease in desire faster than they did after hearing a description of the healthy benefits of their snack.
Once again, those with low self-control satiated at the same rate regardless of health condition. Perceived unhealthiness of the food alone, regardless of actual health level, relates to faster satiation, but only for people with high trait self-control. Thinking that is characterized by high construalswhenever individuals "are obliged to infer additional details of content, context, or meaning in the actions and outcomes that unfold around them",  will view goals and values in a global, abstract sense.
Whereas low level construals emphasize concrete, definitive ideas and categorizations. Different construal levels determine our activation of self-control in response to temptations. One technique for inducing high-level construals is asking an individual a series of "why? When taking an Implicit Association Testpeople with induced high-level construals are significantly faster at associating temptations such as candy bars with "bad," and healthy choices such as apples with "good" than those in the low-level condition.
Further, higher-level construals also show a significantly increased likelihood of choosing an apple for snack over a candy bar. Without any conscious or active self-control efforts, temptations can be dampened by merely inducing high-level construals. It is suggested that the abstraction of high-level construals reminds people of their overall, lifelong values, such as a healthy lifestyle, which deemphasizes the current tempting situation. Positive correlation between linguistic capability and self-control has been inferred from experiments with common chimpanzees.
Human self-control research is typically modeled by using a token economy system. A token economy system is a behavioral program in which individuals in a group can earn tokens for a variety of desirable behaviors and can cash in the tokens for various backup, positive reinforcers. One aspect of these procedural differences was the delay to the exchange period. The human subjects had to wait for an "exchange period" in which they could exchange their tokens for money, usually at the end of the experiment.
When this was done with the non-human subjects, in the form of pigeons, they responded much like humans in that males showed much less control than females. Logue, who is discussed more below, points out that in her study done on self-control it was male children who responded with less self-control than female children. She then states, that in adulthood, for the most part, the sexes equalize on their ability to exhibit self-control. This could imply a human's ability to exert more self-control as they mature and become aware of the consequences associated with impulsivity.
This suggestion is further examined below. Most of the research in the field of self-control assumes that self-control is in general better than impulsiveness. As a result, almost all research done on this topic is from this standpoint and very rarely is impulsiveness the more adaptive response in experimental design.
Self-control is a measurable variable in humans. In the worst circumstances people with the most or high self-control and resilience have the best odds of defying the odds they are faced with, which could be poverty, bad schooling, unsafe communities, Strong Heart - Various - Motivational 1 (CD).
Those at a disadvantage with high self-control go on to higher education and professional jobs, but this, apparently, seems to have a negative effect on their health. When looking at people who come from advantaged backgrounds with high self-control, we see a different phenomenon happening. Those who come from an advantaged background tend to be high-achieving and with their achievement comes good health. Or, at least, toward it. In the s Sherman James a socio-epidemiologist from North Carolina found that black Americans in the state suffered disproportionately from heart disease and strokes.
He too landed on "John Henryism" as the cause of this phenomenon. More recently some in the field of developmental psychology have begun to think of self-control in a more complicated way that takes into account that sometimes impulsiveness is the more adaptive response. In their view, a normal individual should have the capacity to be either impulsive or controlled depending on which is the most adaptive. Are your interacting with your friends because you like them and they like you?
Or are you trying to make a stupid number move? So never share detailed trust metrics with your players. You can, if needed, share some high order group health information. The best practice here is to keep it vague, heavily delayed and multi-dimensional so that the underlying metrics cannot be easily gamed.
A common use for group health information is to drive positive behavior by directing players towards a few key activities that developers know will improve overall social capital. Think of directives that are broad like the Ten Commandments so that players maintain agency and localized judgement. Avoid suggesting highly specific and thus identifiable and gameable activities.
Individual trust exists on top of a bedrock of group norms. For example, a pickup basketball team is a high coordination, moderate trust group. Players know that within the context of the basketball court they can trust one another to play according to the social norms the rules of pickup basketball. If you only sampled this social context, you might imagine that everyone playing is in a deep relationship with one another.
Yet, this relationship is contextual. Outside the basketball court, two players might never talk. When you create your proxies for trust and social capital, it is worth taking into account context. The more rigid and proscribed the rules of group coordination, the less actual trust is required for players to work together. And your metrics of trust may not travel to other portions of your game. A way around this is to track multiple trust metrics in multiple contexts.
High trust dyads in multiple context should be treated as having stronger relationships than those with high trust metrics in only a single context. Note that one of the more interesting to measure contexts is family bonds or mate bonds. These are often have large impacts on behavior but are rarely perfectly visible from inside the game. Positive sum also called non-zero sum resources are a key economic tool for ensuring cooperative play.
Material resources in the real-world are zero sum resources. If I own a piece of pie, there is one less piece of pie for you to own. If I consume that piece of pie, it is lost to you forever. This probably makes you irritable due to loss aversion. An economy of zero sum resources is a world of scarcity. The challenge economics attempts to solve is how we might split up these limited resources in an efficient fashion. Inevitably this involves some form of competition either via trade, negotiation or warfare.
All of these tend to reward at least in the short-term selfish strategies and their resulting social toxicity. However, in digital worlds, resources are mere bits. Making more of a resource is free. If we found a positive sum digital pie, you could have a slice and I could have a slice and the pie would be undiminished.
My getting a piece does not prevent you from getting a piece. There is no need for competition between two parties over a scarce resource. Strong Heart - Various - Motivational 1 (CD) area of exploration is connected to the software theory of agalmics : non-scarce resources. There are a few natural positive sum resources, and correspondingly game systems based on non-scarce resources are — scarce.
Time, for example, is something that everyone experiences equally and simultaneously it is also not transferable. Information is usually positive sum. If I read a book, you can too. With code, we can make almost any resource positive sum. When a monster drops loot for one player, it can also drop loot for any other player that did damage. Whether or not players compete over a resources becomes a design choice, not a fundamental constraint.
When doing prosocial designs, positive sum resources are one of the first tools you should reach for. If you are new to game design, you might imagine that games require zero-sum competition or at least a sense of winning to be enjoyable. Luckily there are many classes of gameplay that work with positive sum resources. In general, almost any Player vs Environment PvE game is amenable to being redesigned using positive sum resources.
If everyone gets resources, how can we prevent our sources from generating too many resources and flooding the world with abundance? We often rely on scarcity to creating prestige tokens or tune the pacing of gameplay. It is important to internalize that as a game economy designer, you control the sources, the sinks and the narrative justification for why the world works as it does. Scarcity as well as abundance are aesthetic choices.
We might imagine that relationships are also positive sum resources. The reality is complicated. In a highly local context, when you consider a few people at a time, forming a new relationship creates a positive sum public good. This is shared between the people in the relationship and essentially creates value in the form of social support and improved coordination. It is often beneficial to make overtures to weakly connected players you encounter on a regular basis. However if you zoom out and consider the entire social network of an individual, they have limited social resources to spare.
For someone with a full set of friends, investing in relationships in one layer pulls resources from from other layers. Like many social resources, this is a difficult-to-acknowledge trade off. By explicitly acting upon that ideas that total social energy is zero-sum, especially in localized small group settings, the relationship become codified and transactional in nature.
And thus suffers a drop in trust. Nobel Prize winner Paul Romer has looked at a specific form of positive sum resource known as a knowledge resource. By taking a particular set of scarce zero-sum resources and performing learned transformations on them, we can derive vastly more utility than if we had just used them naively.
However, if someone knows how to build a brick stove, we can burn the wood hotter, store heat in the stone and ultimately gain more heat from less wood. From this perspective, knowledge is positive sum resources that help dramatically increase the efficiency of using scarce goods.
A wonderful prosocial attribute of knowledge goods is that supply is determined by the number of clever people you have creating them. This is the opposite of most zero-sum scenarios, where having more people around drives increased competition for scarce goods. With appropriate design of your knowledge good economy you can make it so instead more smart players are an advantage, not a threat. Video games have a long history of creating tokens that represent real knowledge.
Or at least perform the themed in-game action that looks like sword fighting. Virtual knowledge is a straightforward game resource that we can choose to make positive sum or not.
Since it is just a token, our systems can trivially pass it around or give it to various players. As unlocks, items or whatever. To make virtual knowledge more social, you need to build in some form of transfer mechanism between players. Usually for a fee or time. There were fun variations where an advanced player can only advance further if they manage to teach a newer player one of these virtual skills. These creates a tit-for-tat reciprocation loop where both players are getting something they need.
In general, when setting up transfer mechanisms, such as the one here with virtual skills, try to create a natural interdependency between players. Economic mechanisms that encourage players to seek out and interact with other players helps facilitate the friendship equation. A specific form of positive sum resource is a vote. Each voter has an explicit ownership of their vote and there are usually rules to prevent vote selling. If more voters appear, using the magic of positive sum resources, they also get a vote.
Votes are then transformed via a decision mechanism aka voting that determines whether or not some course of action is taken. Voting is a social system for managing politics. They are often talked about as part of the domain of political science and most literature covers a handful of relatively conservative systems plurality, ranked voting, etc.
But once we reframe them in economic terms, we gain a large number of tools for manipulating and building novel prosocial voting economies. In the multiplayer VR game Beartopia, players could build various communal projects for their shared virtual village. However, there was a limited amount of public space and it was undesirable let anyone simply build what they wanted without buy-in from other players.
By putting expiration dates on most public projects, we ensured that with a lack of ongoing public attention, public goods would revert back to the public domain. This helped create persistent long term shared goals for players simply seeking to maintain the status quo. One of the early lessons of the industrial revolution was that division of labor allowed workers to vastly increase their productivity at multi-step tasks. Groups of specialized workers working together were more productive than an equally sized group of generalists.
This pattern for organizing human resources has three interesting attributes that make it pervasive throughout social systems design. Because there are strong penalties associated with the failure of high coordination activities, it takes a huge amount of group trust to pull off the most efficient and complex activities.
If they fail, their reputation with this new group of people is tarnished forever. Leading with high risk, high coordination activities generally will send folks running from your game. So designers need to build a ladder of activities in their game, starting with low trust activities between generalists and moving towards higher trust activities between specialists.
The following illustration from the paper The Trust Spectrum shows the basic progression. From The Trust Spectrum, Koster et al. One response from systems designers is to build systems that allow coordination between specialized players at lower levels of trust.
These deskilled actions are coordinated, not by trust, but by an algorithmic often computerized system. A very early version of this was the assembly line. These systems scale to larger groups and can make use of broader labor pools. If you only care about the output of the system, they can be quite attractive. However, if you care about the experience of the players, there are a couple questionable things happening here.
Deskilling systems are typical low trust systems that are helpful to new players. However, they are unable to facilitate the formation of high trust relationships. This can be harnessed in games through structuring experiences whereby players experience shared struggle early in the formation of a group. In many online games, players have discovered this organically and include it in their guild rituals.
When high-retention fleets were studied in Eve Onlinea pattern emerged in the fleet manuals often exceeding 80 pages created by these high-functioning organizations. This playbook of an experience creates high retention in groups through this mechanism of a shared memory and an establishment of interdependence, loyalty, and generosity.
If these traumas are significant enough, they can convey lasting damage onto the Strong Heart - Various - Motivational 1 (CD) relationships of the group members. We can assume that most in-game traumas are far less significant than real world traumas, but these experiences fall into an unstudied place and it can become hard to determine how much pain is too much.
Further, the coping mechanisms that develop under crisis may not transfer to more peaceful contexts. Therefore the shared trauma of an early experience may have to be continued thematically through the game a game about war continues being about war which then sets a dynamic across the experience that is hard to disrupt. The challenge then is to carefully calibrate the kind of shared vulnerability — which is likely a very wide design space — and manage a thoughtful transition to more peaceful forms of gameplay that amount to recovery therapy.
Because these mechanisms for bonding are explicitly successful within guild contexts, which are tribal contexts, it is not clear whether the benefits persist or are possible without a kind of enemy tribe.
Trade increases overall value by allowing exchange between players who own differentiated goods. For a very brief overview, see the appendix on Trade. A buyer can decide if they are willing to pay the price and the seller by listing the price automatically agrees to the subsequent sale.
Auction houses turn both the buyer and seller into low-trust, mechanistic entities. They can engage with a regularly updated listing of goods, quantities and prices and ignore the human on the other side. Humanity, in the form of face-to-face reciprocal interactions between people with names, histories, desires and culture, has been meticulously eliminated from the process.
Too inefficient. This results in immense improvements in material market efficiency. Selfish players clamor for such features in any game that includes trade. But it is worth asking if it drives the prosocial results that we desire. One of the great challenges of social design is that many business owners feel that it is an expensive extra.
Should game designers play political games and show how social design drives business outcomes? There are immense pitfalls that come from following this pattern. Profit motivated capitalism tends to be incredibly damaging to social systems design. See Dark Patterns below for examples. Prosocial economics explicitly brings the tools of economics into social system design. And it promises to be an effective and scalable means of promoting societal values. This combination is a honeypot for bad actors.
It is easy to imagine ideologically motivated governments, political parties and religious groups who co-opt the functionality of games to inject toxic tribal behaviors into the broader world. Yet treating social systems design as a trade secret is also problematic. So that when things start going off the rails, we can identity and censure those who engage in dark social design patterns.
It is in the light of describing and enforcing ethical standards that we cover some of the darker patterns of prosocial economics. When a complex social phenomena such as trust is measured with proxy metrics, it obfuscates much of its expensive-to-measure nuance.
This is exacerbated by the tendency to select proxy metrics because they are easy to measure, not because they are high quality proxies. Subsequently, it is common for optimizers and balancers to start to mistake the proxy metric for the original phenomena. And as they make the proxy go up, they end up inadvertently damaging the hidden nuance of the original phenomena. Sadly, that nuance often turns out to be the real value we were trying to preserve and grow. Motivational crowding is when a task that someone is intrinsically motivated to perform is instead encouraged with an extrinsic reward.
As soon as the extrinsic reward ceases to be given, the person no longer wishes to do the task. Even if they were excited to originally do it for no explicit reward. Extrinsic motivators are much easier to put into systems.
The game can dole out standardized rewards of commodity goods or currency and they can be triggered in a rote fashion upon the mechanistic completion of a well-defined task. Though intrinsic motivators are more effective, longer lasting and result in higher overall happiness of the person doing the task, they are far more difficult to design, measure and systematize.
The result is that designers tend to rely quite heavily on extrinsic motivators. And in the process, inevitably damage our intrinsic motivations. This is highly problematic in social spaces, since social interactions tend to be intrinsically motivated and involve nuances unique to each individual relationship. By tracking where each person is on their personal journey through their game progression, through their acquisition of friends, through their micro actions we can create personal models for what they might desire.
Stop designing for populations of average players and start designing for the intrinsic motivations of the individual player. Carefully scope how your metrics are revealed to minimize negative impacts. Instead, I try to keep myself honest by asking several questions periodically. The most likely source of corruption of a prosocial economic system is when it managed by an unreformed capitalist. An executive who believes in the selfish nature of humanity will tend to replace the core prosocial values with processes that are shortsighted and profit motivated.
Those that practice economics — and to a degree modern American capitalism — are heavily invested in an implicit system of self-centered moral values. A well-documented phenomena is that economists behave more selfishly than other professions. They are less fair, less loyal, less cooperative, more prone to deception, and give less to charity. This appears to also impact executives who use economic framing of problems. In part, this seems to be due to the field of economics attracting selfishly motivated people.
But it also appears to be the result of indoctrination. The repetitive doctrine that humans are best modeled as selfish rational optimizers creates a set of selfish social norms that practitioners consciously or subconsciously follow.
The act of studying economics makes you a morally worse human-being by most definitions of morality. The presence of currency itself, and the tracking of it and focusing upon it, seems to lead to rationalizations that justify selfish behavior. We see this in particular in games as a dimension of the above dark pattern, reliance on extrinsic motivators. Pure exposure to extrinsic motivation systems, of which accumulation of currency is one, seems to bend human behavior toward norms that justify maximization of that accumulation.
It is possible that the persistent high exposure to game currency — Strong Heart - Various - Motivational 1 (CD) as we have stated, almost all games have currencies and tangible economies of some kind — has the same effect that exposure to economics has on economists.
These values are embedded at the level of personal and tribal identity, and so in groups they become naturally amplified. When challenged, the result is a blunt dismissal of any information that disagrees with the existing world view and a re-entrenchment in existing beliefs.
One merely needs to read the responses to some of the studies on selfishness in economics to realize this is not an open-minded, self-reflective group.
My favorite is that claim that economics is perfect, it is merely all other fields of study that mistakenly train up altruistic, prosocial citizens. When worldviews clash, those with the more power wins. A powerful executive, indoctrinated in the ways of selfish capitalism, is very likely to dismiss the prosocial value at the heart of social system design.
A very difficult argument to win. Even in the face of their market crashing, at no point did they stop and question their selfish worldview.
Instead they doubled down on burning out more players to maximize revenue extraction. This paper is intended as an initial exploration in the domain of prosocial economic game system design. Much further work is needed to explore, codify, and test these patterns and ones that may be discovered after. Patterns that we identified but have not built out in this paper include: 1 group leveling, 2 friendship resource differentiated resources3 incentivizing generosity, 4 nurture play, and 5 expressive orthogonality through fashion.
The effect of loneliness on depression: A meta-analysis. Some but not all aspects of advanced theory of mind predict loneliness. These dimensions have been studied in medical research, but for our purposes we are proposing a conceptual framework of loneliness dimensions most relevant to game behavior:.
These limited examples illustrate some of the complexities of loneliness, which represents a rich artistic space rife with subtlety and inner conflict. It is important to note that not all loneliness is purely social or purely emotional; these are two separate dynamics that combine to produce the emergent sensation of loneliness.
When we are talking about prosocial game design, we are, in part, talking about game design systems that address the social pain of loneliness. By dividing loneliness up into its distinct constituent categories, we can more accurately aim experiences at assuaging specific target areas.
Prosocial design has a lot of interesting tools for tackling social loneliness. We have fewer tools for tackling emotional loneliness though this is a fascinating area of further investigation. Economics is one of many potential lenses, or perspectives for understanding a game systems.
As a designer, it is critical you can swap out lenses for examining a problem as needed. For example, you can take a system like player chat and look at it via different lenses and learn something new from each.
So what is the economics lens good for? It helps to think of the lens of economics in game design as having a couple basic superpowers. These end up also being its core weaknesses. Almost any game with a heavy systems focus benefits from using economics to balance or tune the systems to achieve a specific aesthetic outcome.
There are several key steps in this process that build upon one another.
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