Large Crowd Laughter Door- Closing, Opening, Slamming Creaking Door Pistol Shots And Ricochets Thunder Heartbeats Surf Thunderball 2. From Russia With Love 3. Win, Lose Or Spy 5. Under Cover Agent Theme 6. I Spy 7. Ipcress File Theme 8. The Saboteur Too Many People 2.
Ram On 4. Dear Boy 5. Smile Away 7. Heart Of The Country 8. Monkberry Moon Delight 9. Eat At Home Long Haired Lady Ram On A Hard Day's Night Vocal 2. Tell Me Why Vocal 3. I'll Cry Instead Vocal 4. And I Love Her Instrumental 7. If I Fell Vocal 9. And I Love Her Vocal Ringo's Theme This Boy Instrumental Can't Buy Me Love Vocal Overture; Act I Beginning 2.
Act I: Conclusion 2. Act II: Beginning 3. Exciting 2. Sophisticated Swing 3. Double Gaited 4. Rio Batucada 5. Royal Blue 6. Titena 7. Where There's Life 8. Champagne Time 9. Dance From Bonjour Tristesse High And Dry One Night In Monte Carlo Introduction To Horror 2. I'm Hungry 3. Taking Papa Home 4. The Dark 5. A Day At The Dentist's 6. The Posse 7. Chicken Heart 8.
Stereo Test Tone 2. Sonata In G Major, L. Sonata In D Major, L. Water Music: Air 7. Water Music: Allegro Deciso 8. Sonata In E Major, L. Brandenburg Concerto No. Good Gravy 2. Could You Forget 3. A Stairway To The Stars 4. A Little Later 5. On Green Dolphin Street 6.
Just Friends 7. Laura 8. Yes, I'll Be Ready 9. Dark Eyes 2. Popular Gypsy Melodies 3. Gypsy Bell 4. Gari Gari 5. The Black Hussards 6. By Pity 7. Gypsy Love Boubliski 8. The Symphony Of The Birds 9. Gypsy Mazurka Holtzman; Miwa Kai; Hidejiro Kotani. Social Conversations 2.
Personal Matters, Making Yourself Understood 3. General Expressions 4. Difficulties And Repairs 5. Customs 6. Baggage 7. Travel Directions 8. Tickets, Boat, Airplane, Train 9. Bus, Streetcar And Subway, Taxi Automobile Travel Disc 2: 1. Hotel 2. Telephone Conversation 3. At The Cafe 4. Restaurant 5. Food List 6. Restaurant Conversations 7. Chruch, Temple, Sightseeing 8. Amusements, Sport 9. Bank And Money Disc 3: 1. Released through Columbia Records.
Three-time Grammy Award winner Lucinda Williams unabashedly takes on some of the human, social and political issues of our day with her boldest and most direct album to date, Good Souls Better Angels. During the course of her celebrated four-decade, pioneering career Williams has never rested on her laurels as she continues to push herself as a songwriter. On Good Souls Better Angels, she has much she needs to get out. On Good Souls Better Angels, Williams changes course and chooses to forgo the personal and narrative-based songcraft that has become synonymous with her name and instead speaks to some of the injustices permeating our society.
The rock-solid unit propels the music with both fire and finesse. Formed inthe band originally released this album with Lifeforce Records in and soon after gained the attention of iconic Chicago-based record label Victory Records. Victory signed the band and re-released the record as an enhanced CD in While the album was praised for its brave blend of mathcore, grindcore and death metal elements into their already unique sound, the lyrics also set them apart from their peers.
The band addressed their thoughts on controversial topics ranging from politics to organized religion — issues not often addressed in this music scene at this time. Conquest Of Kingdoms is a compendium of career-spanning live performances, b-sides, covers and rarities, culled from the complete studio album recordings of The Sword.
This 3-LP set features 16 previously unreleased tracks. Triple gatefold packaging. Wavves will be celebrating the 10th anniversary of their album "King Of The Beach" this year with a reissue on "Purple kush vinyl" with alternate art that was originally slated to be the cover but was eventually scrapped. A stunning, hopeful reflection on love, loss, and enlightenment, In Heaven is a triumph in music making, and a preeminent addition to the Strand of Oaks discography. With much of Outsider recorded during lockdown, this new album finds Taylor in a reflective mood, conveying a palpable sense of isolation, concerns over the passing of time, and tellingly dedicated "to all the outsiders, those who feel left on the sidelines".
A highly personal project, Outsider's instrumentation is almost entirely performed by Taylor, with his vocals matching the mood-piece atmosphere. Joining Zimmer on scoring the soundtrack is Johnny Marr, who is also the featured guitarist on the album, with additional music by composer and score producer Steve Mazzaro. Recently we have been listening to some of their latest releases and we highly reccomend that you do too.
The record label decided to be cautious in the wake of the controversy and political turmoil and ordered the records destroyed. You may remember this record from an episode of Pawn Stars. The price was deemed too steep for the vinyl, which was not in the best shape. One lucky Canadian record collector picked up a copy sans the Warhol artwork-adorned sleeve for 75 cents at a flea market, but this was no ordinary re-pressing. The acetate record ended up being a test pressing that featured early versions of many of the songs — there are only two in existence, and one belongs to former Velvet Underground drummer Moe Tucker.
Gordy ordered the pressings destroyed. Soussan unscrupulously bootlegged the record and released it by crediting Eddie Foster as the musician. The record was a smash hit. Such is the case with this already valuable record. A few tracks were meant to be replaced before the release, but someone at the pressing plant missed the memo, and a few copies featuring the wrong songs were pressed. There are said to be less than 20 mono copies of the record and only two stereo copies. In a stroke of luck, the North Carolina seller of this extremely rare 78 RPM slab came into possession of the record at an estate sale.
He threw the record up on eBay and watched a bidding frenzy take place. There are believed to be only copies of the record in existence — both belong to the winning bidder, John Tefteller. The reason? However, by that time promotional copies had already made it to circulation. Evidently, the singer changed his mind about the record, releasing a CD version in At least one copy managed to escape out into the world.
The money was split between James and Doctors Without Borders. An undisputed classic tops the list. For years, it was rumored that the first copy went to the late John Lennon, but really it went to Ringo Starr. Starr put the money toward his own Lotus Foundation — a charity that provides support for victims of domestic violence, cancer research, the homeless, and other noble causes.
Later in his career, Anka was also known for writing songs for other artists, including Frank Sinatra and Buddy Holly. Can I get on that for my commute? Mamma Mia, here we go again! However, you might not know how drastically different the lyrics to this song are from the English version to the Swedish.
The rest was history. If only our siblings were this talented! Enter George McCrae. The single sold 11 million copies and Rolling Stone named it the top song of the year. Cher sold 11 million copies of this dance-pop single worldwide and became the oldest female artist to ever enjoy that kind of chart-topping success. Thematically, Rebel Heart represents the singer's romantic and rebellious sides; the ideas grew organically during the writing and recording sessions.
Musically, it is a pop record which merges an array of genres such as s housetrapand reggaewhile using acoustic guitars and a gospel choir. Some of the songs are autobiographical in nature, while others talk about love and Madonna's career.
Unlike her previous endeavors, working with many collaborators posed problems for Madonna in keeping a cohesive sound and creative direction for the album. The record had been set for a March release, with the first single to be released on Valentine's Day. However, after a flurry of unexpected album content leaksMadonna released Rebel Heart for pre-order on the iTunes Store on December 20,with six songs made available immediately for download.
A police investigation led to an Israeli man being arrested and charged with hacking into Madonna's computer and leaking the songs. The album's artwork became popular on social media, leading to numerous memes being created. Rebel Heart received predominantly positive reviews from music critics ; multiple reviewers called it Madonna's best effort in a decade. It debuted and peaked at number two on the US Billboardwhile reaching number one in major music markets such as Australia, Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland.
Rebel Heart was certified gold or platinum in seven countries. She was threatened with several lawsuits. The film launched a global initiative known as Art for Freedom to promote freedom of expression.
She is committed to the initiative and must use her voice as an artist. Heart Of Stone - Stars (7) - Stars (Vinyl DecemberMadonna's manager Guy Oseary commented that the singer was "eager to get started" on her next album. Madonna decided to split her time between writing the screenplay and writing songs for the new album. Working with many collaborators on Rebel HeartMadonna encountered problems keeping a cohesive sound and creative direction for it.
She observed that many of the people she enlisted to work on the album could not stay in one city for any length of time due to their schedules. This resulted her not finishing songs in one session. In MarchMadonna began posting a number of images on Instagram hinting at possible songwriters and collaborators with hashtag captions. First she posted about going into the recording studio with Swedish DJ and producer Avicii. He recalled that eleven demos with acoustic guitars and piano were recorded within a week at Henson Recording Studios in Hollywood.
Avicii's manager Arash "Ash" Pour Nouri selected six people. Avicii worked with both groups to create the demo songs, while Madonna arrived at the studio in the afternoon and stayed until am. She worked closely with both teams while writing and changing melodies, and was in charge of the process. A few days later, Madonna posted an image of a sunset with the words "Rebel Heart" on them, and a caption which the media interpreted as lyrics from a new song.
The lines posted were: "Day turns into night. I won't give up the fight. Don't want to get to the end of my days Maybe because she is one of the biggest pop stars of all time. I didn't think she would take me serious just another producer working on a huge album. She showed me a whole other level of dedication and old school work ethic when it comes to writing.
They eventually started talking about music through texts and decided to Album) on the album. Together they wrote and recorded seven songs. We really pushed the envelope with some of the stuff we were doing I love when an artist gives a producer the confidence he needs to work with them, and Madonna was very open-minded to my ideas", Diplo added.
One song was composed using a hook Madonna had sung in the studio; Diplo described it as "super weird".
Another one, later confirmed as " Living for Love ", had nearly twenty versions recorded ranging from a piano ballad to an EDM version.
Ultimately Madonna and Diplo compromised on a version midway between the two styles. Thematically, Caryn Ganz of Rolling Stone felt the album focused on two subjects: listening to one's heart, and being a rebel. Madonna explained that these concepts were not her initial inspiration but emerged during the sessions with Avicii.
Madonna observed two distinct themes emerging organically, and felt the need to express them. The title stemmed from Madonna's belief that contemporary music artists are not encouraged or inspired to be rebellious, take risks, or speak-up, and she wanted to highlight this.
However, she understood the importance of having love in the rebellious nature, so added the word Heart to the title. It was a time when pop music was more naive and free. I was missing that feeling and that mixture of so many different worlds in New York. Introspection was also listed as one of the foundational themes prevalent on the album.
Mac as well as her "obsessive self-regard". It just seemed like a time where I wanted to stop and look back. It's kind of like survivor guilt.
How did I make it and they didn't? It was almost like an acting exercise, you know, just putting myself in a room and letting ideas flow even if I didn't feel so connected to the people. Further inspiration for the album came from Madonna's exploration of other cultures and art, literature, and music, referencing them in the songs. She believed that the tracks should stand on their own, so that one could sing them accompanied by just a guitar.
They visited night clubs and were able to provide her with news about up-and-coming music and artists, helping to create the sounds she gravitated towards for the album.
Generally a pop record,  Rebel Heart was different from Madonna's releases in the last decade according to Bradley Stern of MuuMuse. He called it an "eclectic record" citing the merging of an array of musical genres like s housetrapand reggae along with the use of acoustic guitars. Stern felt that unlike Hard Candy and MDNA which chased then current musical trends, this album's sound was progressive. However, with the songs from Rebel Heartshe was able to create potentially successful singles, despite the tracks' different styles, thereby maintaining consistency on the record.
Rebel Heart opens with the song "Living for Love". Composed in the house genre, it begins with Madonna singing over a "regal" piano line, eventually joined by percussion. It is a ska song where Madonna speaks negatively about a break-up and her lover, with lyrics such as: "It might sound like I'm an unapologetic bitch but sometimes you have to call it like it is.
She decided to research the real Illuminati and then wrote the song. Mac of Slant Magazine as: "innocuous, lyrically platitudinous pop that briefly works itself up into something exciting when it threatens to become a gospelized stomp.
Tyson does a spoken word introduction to the song, similar to his addition to Canibus 's debut single, " Second Round K. Madonna invited him to the recording studio where he talked about his life; he recorded the introduction in one take. A piano ballad talking about lost love, Madonna sings in a deeper vocal register, inspired by baroque pop.
With hedonistic sound effects, the song is reminiscent of Madonna's single, " Justify My Love " and contains a lyrical excerpt from " Vogue ". Baroque piano sounds, and a steady military beatlead up to the chorus as Madonna sings about the world changing, heartbreaks, and acceptance. A gospel choir and minimum synths back the song's sound. The deluxe version of Rebel Heart continues with the track "Best Night", an '80s electro composition reminiscent of Sade 's songs with drums and Indian flute instrumentation.
Madonna begins the song with the line, "You can call me M tonight" but her voice is not discernible in the chorus, only in the harmonies. There is another reference to "Justify My Love" at one point during the intermediate bridge. Described as both an embodiment and critique of the act, "S. Madonna sings in a "deeper velvety" tone. The lyrics talk about lighting candles, necromancyand casting love spells. The title track finishes the deluxe version and was changed completely from its leaked demo.
It consists of acoustic guitar and violins, with autobiographical lyrics. Amy Pettifer of The Quietus noted, "'Rebel Heart' quietly [acknowledges Madonna's] part in building the scene and popularizing stylistics that are the foundation of current trends.
In Mayphotographer Mert Alas posted on his Instagram account that he was listening to a new Madonna album. Billboard clarified that she was still in the process of recording it in Los Angeles. Release the single, shoot a video, start talking about my record. And you know, prepare for the release of the entire album and have everything set up just so But we sort of were left with no choice", she added.
Obviously there is a person, or a group of people behind this that were essentially terrorising me. I don't want to sound alarming, but certainly that's how I felt. It's one thing if someone comes into your house and steals a painting off your wall: that's also a violation, but, your work, as an artist, that's devastating [ I did not say 'hey, here's my music, and it's finished.
On December 20,the album was made available for pre-order at the iTunes Store. With the final release on March 10, Originally, "Living for Love" was intended to serve as the album's lead single. It was to be released on Valentine's Daywith the rest of the record slated for the spring. However, due to the leak, the release date had to be pushed up. The final track list for Rebel Heart was revealed on January 20,including the standard and deluxe version song names.
Lahavan Israeli crime-fighting umbrella organizationhad led a month-long investigation after the leaks occurred, working closely with the FBI. Although Israeli police refused to name the suspect, media identified him as former reality show contestant Adi Lederman, who had participated in the Israeli singing competition, Kokhav Noladseason ten.
The cover art, featuring Madonna's face inter-crossed with black wires, became popular on social media resulting in numerous memes being created on Instagram, Tumblr and Twitter. Fans wound black wires across their faces imitating the cover, and created memes using the images of celebrities, including Britney SpearsMichael JacksonJim Carreyand Marlon Brando.
However, three of the images—those of Martin Luther King Jr. Madonna confirmed her appearance at the 57th Annual Grammy Awards on February 8, ; Oseary clarified she would also sing during the ceremony. Forbes reported that Madonna's performance was the most-watched moment of the night. She later took to Instagram to confirm she was well, posting: "Thanks for the good wishes! I'm fine. When her dancers attempted to remove it from her neck, this caused her to crash to the floor, leaving the audience in shock.
After several seconds, she continued her performance as planned. Madonna partnered with the geosocial networking app, Grindr to promote Rebel Heart. A contest was held, and five of the app's users were selected for an exclusive interview with the artist. The contest required re-creating the artwork for Rebel Heart and posting it as a Grindr profile picture.
Other winners received signed copies of the album. She performed an edited version of "Living for Love", as well as "Ghosttown" for the first time. She performed "Devil Pray" and "Ghosttown" while talking with host Fabio Fazio about a number of topics including the album's development process. Songs performed included "Living for Love" with DeGeneres herself joining the singer onstage. It was sent for radio play in the US on February 10, This is done with relative ease because no actual "plating" of the mandrel occurs in the type of electrodeposition known as electroforming, unlike with electroplating, in which the adhesion of the new phase of metal is chemical and relatively permanent.
The one-molecule-thick coating of silver that was sprayed onto the processed lacquer sound disc in order to make its surface electrically conductive reverse-plates onto the nickel record's face. This negative impression disc having ridges in place of grooves is known as a nickel master, "matrix" or "father".
The "father" is then used as a mandrel to electroform a positive disc known as a "mother". Many mothers can be grown on a single "father" before ridges deteriorate beyond effective use. The "mothers" are then used as mandrels for electroforming more negative discs known as "sons". Each "mother" can be used to make many "sons" before deteriorating. The "sons" are then converted into "stampers" by center-punching a spindle hole which was lost from the lacquer sound disc during initial electroforming of the "father"and by custom-forming the target pressing profile.
This allows them to be placed in the dies of the target make and model record press and, by center-roughing, to facilitate the adhesion of the label, which gets stuck onto the vinyl pressing without any glue. In this way, several million vinyl discs can be produced from a single lacquer sound disc.
When only a few hundred discs are required, instead of electroforming a "son" for each sidethe "father" is removed of its silver and converted into a stamper. Production by this latter method, known as the "two-step process" as it does not entail creation of "sons" but does involve creation of "mothers", which are used for test playing and kept as "safeties" for electroforming future "sons" is limited to a few hundred vinyl pressings.
The pressing count can increase if the stamper holds out and the quality of the vinyl is high. The "sons" made during a "three-step" electroforming make better stampers since they don't require silver removal which reduces some high fidelity because of etching erasing part of the smallest groove modulations and also because they have a stronger metal structure than "fathers". Shellac 78s are fragile, and must be handled carefully. In the event of a 78 breaking, the pieces might remain loosely connected by the label and still be playable if the label holds them together, although there is a loud pop with each pass over the crack, and breaking of the stylus is likely.
Breakage was very common in the shellac era. He wanted to cry but could not. Salinger 's novel The Catcher in the Rye occurs after the adolescent protagonist buys a record for his younger sister but drops it and "it broke into pieces I damn-near cried, it made me feel so terrible. Another problem with shellac Album) that the size of the disks tended to be larger because it was limited to 80— groove walls per inch before the risk of groove collapse became too high, whereas vinyl could have up to groove walls per inch.
By the time World War II began, major labels were experimenting with laminated records. As stated above, and in several record advertisements of the period, the materials that make for a quiet surface shellac are notoriously weak and fragile. Conversely the materials that make for a strong disc cardboard and other fiber products are not those known for allowing a quiet noise-free surface.
Although vinyl records are strong and don't break easily, they scratch due to its soft material sometimes resulting in ruining the record. Vinyl readily acquires a static charge, attracting dust that is difficult to remove completely. Dust and scratches cause audio clicks and pops. In extreme cases, they can cause the needle to skip over a series of grooves, or worse yet, cause the needle to skip backwards, creating a "locked groove" that repeats over and over.
This is the origin of the phrase " like a broken record " or "like a scratched record", which is often used to describe a person or thing that continually repeats itself. Vinyl records can be warped by heatimproper storage, exposure to sunlight, or manufacturing defects such as excessively tight plastic shrinkwrap on the album cover. A small degree of warp was common, and allowing for it was part of the art of turntable and tonearm design. Standard practice for LPs was to place the LP in a paper or plastic inner cover.
This, if placed within the outer cardboard cover so that the opening was entirely within the outer cover, was said to reduce ingress of dust onto the record surface. Singles, with rare exceptions, had simple paper covers with no inner cover. A further limitation of the gramophone record is that fidelity steadily declines as playback progresses; there is more vinyl per second available for fine reproduction of high frequencies at the large-diameter beginning of the groove than exist at the smaller diameters close to the end of the side.
At the start of a groove on an LP there are mm of vinyl per second traveling past the LP while the ending of the groove gives — mm of vinyl per second — less than half the linear resolution.
Another problem arises because of the geometry of the tonearm. Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw. Most turntables use a pivoting tonearm, introducing side forces and pitch and azimuth errors, and thus distortion in the playback signal. Various mechanisms were devised in attempts to compensate, with varying degrees of success.
See more at phonograph. There is controversy about the relative quality of CD sound and LP sound when the latter is heard under the very best conditions see Analog vs. It is notable, however, that one technical advantage with vinyl compared to the optical CD is that if correctly handled and stored, the vinyl record will be playable for decades and possibly centuries,  which is longer than some versions of the optical CD. Guidelines for proper vinyl storage include not stacking records on top of each other, avoiding heat or direct sunlight and placing them in a temperature controlled area which will help prevent vinyl records from warping and scratching.
Collectors store their records in a variety of boxes, cubes, shelves and racks. Even so, these early electronically recorded records used the exponential-horn phonograph see Orthophonic Victrola for reproduction.
CD-4 LPs contain two sub-carriers, one in the left groove wall and one in the right groove wall. CD-4 sub-carriers could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response.
The recommended stylus for CD-4 as well as regular stereo records was a line contact or Shibata type. Gramophone sound includes rumble, which is low-frequency below about 30 Hz mechanical noise generated by the motor bearings and picked up by the stylus. Equipment of modest quality is relatively unaffected by these issues, as the amplifier and speaker will not reproduce such low frequencies, but high-fidelity turntable assemblies need careful design to minimize audible rumble.
Tonearm skating forces and other perturbations are also picked up by the stylus. This is a form of frequency multiplexing as the control signal restoring force used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as the sound itself. Subsonic frequencies below about 20 Hz in the audio signal are dominated by tracking effects, which is one form of unwanted rumble "tracking noise" and merges with audible frequencies in the deep bass range up to about Hz.
High fidelity sound equipment can reproduce tracking noise and rumble. During a quiet passage, woofer speaker cones can sometimes be seen to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at frequencies as low as just above 0. Another reason for very low frequency material can be a warped disk: its undulations produce frequencies of only a few hertz and present day amplifiers have large power bandwidths. For this reason, many stereo receivers contained a switchable subsonic filter. Some subsonic content is directly out of phase in each channel.
If played back on a mono subwoofer system, the noise will cancel, significantly reducing the amount of rumble that is reproduced. High frequency hiss is generated as the stylus rubs against the vinyl, and dirt and dust on the vinyl produces popping and ticking sounds. The latter can be reduced somewhat by cleaning the record before playback. Due to recording mastering and manufacturing limitations, both high and low frequencies were removed from the first recorded signals by various formulae.
With low frequencies, the stylus must swing a long way from side to side, requiring the groove to be wide, taking up more space and limiting the playing time of the record. At high frequencies, hiss, pops, and ticks are significant. These problems can be reduced by using equalization to an agreed standard. During recording the amplitude of low frequencies is reduced, thus reducing the groove width required, and the amplitude at high frequencies is increased.
The playback equipment boosts bass and cuts treble so as to restore the tonal balance in the original signal; this also reduces the high frequency noise.
Thus more music will fit on the record, and noise is reduced. The current standard is called RIAA equalization. It was agreed upon in and implemented in the United States in ; it was not widely used in other countries until the s.
Before that, especially fromsome different formulae were used by the record manufacturers. In Joseph P. Maxwell and Henry C. Harrison from Bell Telephone Laboratories disclosed that the recording pattern of the Western Electric "rubber line" magnetic disc cutter had a constant velocity characteristic.
This meant that as frequency increased in the treble, recording amplitude decreased. Conversely, in the bass as frequency decreased, recording amplitude increased. Therefore, it was necessary to attenuate the bass frequencies below about Hz, the bass turnover point, in the amplified microphone signal fed to the recording head.
Otherwise, bass modulation became excessive and overcutting took place into the next record groove. When played back electrically with a magnetic pickup having a smooth response in the bass region, a complementary boost in amplitude at the bass turnover point was necessary. Miller in reported that when complementary boost at the turnover point was used in radio broadcasts of records, the reproduction was more realistic and many of the musical instruments stood out in their true form.
West in and later P. Voigt showed that the early Wente-style condenser microphones contributed to a 4 to 6 dB midrange brilliance or pre-emphasis in the recording chain. This meant that the electrical recording characteristics of Western Electric licensees such as Columbia Records and Victor Talking Machine Company in the era had a higher amplitude in the midrange region.
Brilliance such as this compensated for dullness in many early magnetic pickups having drooping midrange and treble response. Over the years a variety of record equalization practices emerged and there was no industry standard. Evidence from the early technical literature concerning electrical recording suggests that it wasn't until the — period that there were serious efforts to standardize recording characteristics within an industry.
Heretofore, electrical recording technology from company to company was considered a proprietary art all the way back to the Western Electric licensed method used by Columbia and Victor. Broadcasters were faced with having to adapt daily to the varied recording characteristics of many sources: various makers of "home recordings" readily available to the public, European recordings, lateral-cut transcriptions, and vertical-cut transcriptions.
The NAB, among other items, issued recording standards in for laterally and vertically cut records, principally transcriptions.
Empirically, and not by any formula, it was learned that the bass end of the audio spectrum below Hz could be boosted somewhat to override system hum and turntable rumble noises.
Likewise at the treble end beginning at 1, Hz, if audio frequencies were boosted by 16 dB at 10, Hz the delicate sibilant sounds of speech and high overtones of musical instruments could survive the noise level of cellulose acetatelacquer —aluminum, and vinyl disc media.
When the record was played back using a complementary inverse curve, signal-to-noise ratio was improved and the programming sounded more lifelike. Columbia disclosed a recording characteristic showing that it was like the NAB curve in the treble, but had more bass boost or pre-emphasis below Hz.
The authors disclosed electrical network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve. This was the first such curve based on formulae. This was intended for use by hi-fi amplifier manufacturers. If records were engineered to sound good on hi-fi amplifiers using the AES curve, this would be a worthy goal towards standardization. Besides also being a battle of disc size and record speed, there was a technical difference in the recording characteristics.
Ultimately, the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a publication by R. Moyer of RCA Victor in He traced RCA Victor characteristics back to the Western Electric "rubber line" recorder in up to the early s laying claim to long-held recording practices and reasons for major changes in the intervening years.
It eventually became the technical predecessor to the RIAA curve. Hence the RIAA curve did not truly become a global standard until the late s. Further, even after officially agreeing to implement the RIAA equalization curve, many recording labels continued to use their own proprietary equalization even well into the s. Overall sound fidelity of records produced acoustically using horns instead of microphones had a distant, hollow tone quality. Some voices and instruments recorded better than others; Enrico Carusoa famous tenor, was one popular recording artist of the acoustic era whose voice was well matched to the recording horn.
Heart Of Stone - Stars (7) - Stars (Vinyl has been asked, "Did Caruso make the phonograph, or did the phonograph make Caruso? Delicate sounds and fine overtones were mostly lost, because it took a lot of sound energy to vibrate the recording horn diaphragm and cutting mechanism. There were acoustic limitations due to mechanical resonances in both the recording and playback system. Some pictures of acoustic recording sessions show horns wrapped with tape to help mute these resonances.
Even an acoustic recording played back electrically on modern equipment sounds like it was recorded through a horn, notwithstanding a reduction in distortion because of the modern playback.
Toward the end of the acoustic era, there were many fine examples of recordings made with horns. Electric recording, which developed as early radio became popularbenefited from the microphones and amplifiers used in radio studios. The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings, except there was more recorded bass and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records.
This was in spite of some carbon microphones used, which had resonances that colored the recorded tone. The double button carbon microphone with stretched diaphragm was a marked improvement. Alternatively, the Wente style condenser microphone used with the Western Electric licensed recording method had a brilliant midrange and was prone to overloading from sibilants in speech, but generally it gave more accurate reproduction than carbon microphones. It was not unusual for electric recordings to be played back on acoustic phonographs.
The Victor Orthophonic phonograph was a prime example where such playback was expected. In the Orthophonic, which benefited from telephone research, the mechanical pickup head was redesigned with lower resonance than the traditional mica type. Also, a folded horn with an exponential taper was constructed inside the cabinet to provide better impedance matching to the air.
As a result, playback of an Orthophonic record sounded like it was coming from a radio. Eventually, when it was more common for electric recordings to be played back electrically in the s and s, the overall tone was much like listening to a radio of the era.
Magnetic pickups became more common and were better designed as time went on, making it possible to improve the damping of spurious resonances. Crystal pickups were also introduced as lower cost alternatives. The dynamic or moving coil microphone was introduced around and the velocity or ribbon microphone in Both of these high quality microphones became widespread in motion picture, radio, recording, and public address applications.
Over time, fidelity, dynamic and noise levels improved to the point that it was harder to tell the difference between a live performance in the studio and the recorded version. This was especially true after the invention of the variable reluctance magnetic pickup cartridge by General Electric in the s when high quality cuts were played on well-designed audio systems.
There were important quality advances in recordings specifically made for radio broadcast. The intent of the new Western Electric system was to improve the overall quality of disc recording and playback. The newly invented Western Electric moving coil or dynamic microphone was part of the Wide Range System. It had a flatter audio response than the old style Wente condenser type and didn't require electronics installed in the microphone housing.
Signals fed to the cutting head were pre-emphasized in the treble region to help override noise in playback. Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts. The chief advantage claimed was more grooves per inch that could be crowded together, resulting in longer playback time. Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion, which plagued lateral cuts, could be avoided with the vertical cut system.
Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal disc thus avoiding the microscopic irregularities of cast blocks of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing.
Vinyl pressings were made with stampers from master cuts that were electroplated in vacuo by means of gold sputtering. Audio response was claimed out to 8, Hz, later 13, Hz, using light weight pickups employing jeweled styli. Amplifiers and cutters both using negative feedback were employed thereby improving the range of frequencies cut and lowering distortion levels.
Radio transcription producers such as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers AMP were the dominant licensees of the Western Electric wide range system and towards the end of the s were responsible for two-thirds of the total radio transcription business.
Wir Sind Da! (Radio Edit) - Fresh Familee - Wir Sind Da! (CD), Cranking The Sirens - Soilwork - Figure Number Five (CD, Album), Thanks For Being You - George Smith* - Im Only Human (Vinyl, LP), Intro: Procession (Tape) - Queen - Hail To Majesty (CD), East St. Louis Dry Land Blues - Backwards Sam Firk - The True Blues And Gospel (Vinyl, LP, Album), The Way You Make Me Feel - Michael Jackson - Number Ones (CD, Album), Part 6 - The Battle With The Tirthikas - Peter Lieberson - Yo-Yo Ma, Omar Ebrahim, Emanuel Ax, Peter, Nine Times Out Of Ten - Cliff Richard - Cliffs Hit Album (Vinyl, LP), Trouble Come This Morning - Crime + The City Solution* - Room Of Lights (CD, Album), Середина Пути (Middle Of The Road) - Various - Greenpeace - Breakthrough (Vinyl, LP), C.Rap - Chaos U.K.* - Enough To Make You Sick & The Chipping Sodbury Bonfire Tapes (Vinyl, LP), Mezzanotte Tango - Roby Guareschi e Caterina Villalba - Mezzanotte Tango / Mezzanotte A Parigi (Viny, Crumbling Walls And Wandering Rocks - UC San Diego Music - Sound Check Five (CD, Album)