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The demographic table below shows the subregions and countries of geopolitical Oceania. The countries and territories in this table are categorised according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations. The information shown follows sources in cross-referenced articles; where sources differ, provisos have been clearly indicated.
These territories and regions are subject to various additional categorisations, depending on the source and purpose of each description. In recent Australian and New Zealand censuses, large proportions of the population say they belong to " no religion " which includes atheismagnosticismdeismsecular humanism.
In Tongaeveryday life is heavily influenced by Polynesian traditions and especially by the Christian faith.
The Ahmadiyya mosque in Marshall Islands is the only mosque in Micronesia. Other religions in the region include IslamBuddhism and Hinduismwhich are prominent minority religions in Australia and New Zealand. JudaismSikhism and Jainism are also present. There are also Creoles formed from the interaction of Malay or the colonial languages with indigenous languages, such as Tok PisinBislamaChavacanovarious Malay trade and creole languagesHawaiian PidginNorfukand Pitkern.
Contact between Austronesian and Papuan resulted in several instances in mixed languages such as Maisin. The most multicultural areas in Oceania, which have a high degree of immigrationare Australia, New Zealand and Hawaii. Sincemore than 7 million people have settled in Australia. From the late s, there was a significant increase in immigration from Asian and other non-European countries, making Australia a multicultural country.
Sydney is the most Longman (5) - Birds Are Silent (File city in Oceania, having more than different languages spoken with about 40 percent of residents speaking a language other than English at home. European migration to New Zealand provided a major influx following the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in Hawaii is a majority-minority state. Inthe first American missionaries arrived to preach Christianity and teach the Hawaiians Western ways.
Many are descendants of immigrants brought to work on the sugarcane plantations in the mid-to-late 19th century. Almost 13, Portuguese immigrants had arrived Longman (5) - Birds Are Silent (File ; they also worked on the sugarcane plantations. Between and Australia's Pacific Solution policy transferred asylum seekers to several Pacific nations, including the Nauru detention centre. Australia, New Zealand and other nations took part in the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands between and after a request for aid.
Archaeologylinguisticsand existing genetic studies indicate that Oceania was settled by two major waves of migration. The first migration of Australo-Melanesians took place approximately 40 to 80 thousand years ago, and these migrants, Papuanscolonised much of Near Oceania.
Approximately 3. Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA studies quantify the magnitude of the Austronesian expansion and demonstrate the homogenising effect of this expansion. With regards to Papuan influence, autochthonous haplogroups support the hypothesis of a long history in Near Oceania, with some lineages suggesting a time depth of 60 thousand years.
Santa Cruza population located in Remote Oceania, is an anomaly with extreme frequencies of autochthonous haplogroups of Near Oceanian origin. Large areas of New Guinea are unexplored by scientists and anthropologists due to extensive forestation and mountainous terrain. Known indigenous tribes in Papua New Guinea have very little contact with local authorities aside from the authorities knowing who they are. Many remain preliterate and, at the national or international level, the names of tribes and information about them is extremely hard to obtain.
The Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua on the island of New Longman (5) - Birds Are Silent (File are home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups. Australia and New Zealand are the only highly developed independent nations in the region, although the economy of Australia is by far the largest and most dominant economy in the region and one of the largest in the world. New Caledonia, Hawaii and French Polynesia are highly developed too but are not sovereign states. Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living making it one of the most livable cities.
The majority of people living in Australia and to a lesser extent, New Zealand work in miningelectrical and manufacturing sectors also. The overwhelming majority of people living in the Pacific islands work in the service industry which includes tourism, education and financial services.
The smallest Pacific nations rely on trade with Australia, New Zealand and the United States for exporting goods and for accessing other products. The main produce from the Pacific is copra or coconutbut timberbeefpalm oilcocoasugar and ginger are also commonly grown across the tropics of the Pacific.
Fishing provides a major industry for many of the smaller nations in the Pacific, although many fishing areas are exploited by other larger countries, namely Japan.
Natural Resourcessuch as leadzincnickel and goldare mined in Australia and Solomon Islands. Endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, Fiji is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economiesthough it remains a developing country with a large subsistence agriculture sector. Sugar exports and the growing tourist industry are the major sources of foreign exchange. Sugar cane processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Coconutsgingerand copra are also significant.
The history of Hawaii's economy can be traced through a succession of dominant Longman (5) - Birds Are Silent (File sandalwood whaling sugarcane, pineapplethe military, tourism and education. These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, due to the shipping distance to viable markets, such as the West Coast of the contiguous U.
The state's food exports include coffee, macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, sugarcane and honey. Fiji currently attracts almost half a million tourists each year, more than a quarter of whom come from Australia. Vanuatu is widely recognised as one of the premier vacation destinations for scuba divers wishing to explore coral reefs of the South Pacific region.
Tourism has been promoted, in part, by Vanuatu being the site of several reality-TV shows. Two years later, Australia's Celebrity Survivor was filmed at the same location used by the US version.
Tourism in Australia is an important component of the Australian economy. Tourism New Zealandthe country's official tourism agency, is actively promoting the country as a destination worldwide. In alone, according to state government data, there were over 6. Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy  with Elizabeth II at its apex as the Queen of Australiaa role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth Longman (5) - Birds Are Silent (File.
The Queen is represented in Australia by the Governor-General at the federal level and by the Governors at the state level, who by convention act on the advice of her ministers. New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy although its constitution is not codified.
In Samoan politicsthe Prime Minister of Samoa is the head of government. The constitutionwhich formally came into force with independence from New Zealand inbuilds on the British pattern of parliamentary democracymodified to take account of Samoan customs.
The national government malo generally controls the legislative assembly. Fiji has a multiparty system with the Prime Minister of Fiji as head of government. The executive power is exercised by the government.
Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Fiji. Fiji 's Head of State is the President. He is elected by Parliament of Fiji after nomination by the Prime Minister or the Leader of the Oppositionfor a three-year term. In Kiribatia Parliamentary regimethe President of Kiribati is the head of state and government, and of a multi-party system.
New Caledonia remains an integral part of the French Republic. Inhabitants of New Caledonia are French citizens and carry French passports. They take part in the legislative and presidential French elections. Hawaii is dominated by the Democratic Party. As codified in the Constitution of Hawaiithere are three branches of government : executive, legislative and judicial.
The governor is elected statewide. The lieutenant governor acts as the Secretary of State. The governor and lieutenant governor oversee twenty agencies and departments from offices in the State Capitol. Sincethe primary influence behind Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culturewith some Indigenous influences.
Australia is also known for its cafe and coffee culture in urban centres. Most Indigenous Australian tribal groups subsisted on a simple hunter-gatherer diet of native fauna and flora, otherwise called bush tucker. The music of Hawaii includes traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop.
Hawaii's musical contributions to the music of the United States are out of proportion to the state's small size. Styles such as slack-key guitar are well known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a frequent part of Hollywood soundtracks.
Hawaii also made a major contribution to country music with the introduction of the steel guitar. The cuisine of Hawaii is a fusion of many foods brought by immigrants to the Hawaiian Islands, including the earliest Polynesians and Native Hawaiian cuisineand AmericanChineseFilipinoJapaneseKoreanPolynesian and Portuguese origins. The country has been broadened by globalisation and immigration specifically from Oceania, Europe, and Asia.
The fa'a Samoaor traditional Samoan way, remains a strong force in Samoan life and politics. Despite centuries of European influence, Samoa maintains its historical customs, social and political systems, and language. Cultural customs such as the Samoa 'ava ceremony are significant and solemn rituals at important occasions including the bestowal of matai chiefly titles. Items of great cultural value include the finely woven 'ie toga.
The Samoan word for dance is sivawhich consists of unique gentle movements of the body in time to music and which tell a story. Samoan male dances can be more snappy. Another dance performed by males is called the fa'ataupati or the slap dance, creating rhythmic sounds by slapping different parts of the body.
The artistic creations of native Oceanians varies greatly throughout the cultures and regions. The subject matter typically carries themes of fertility or the supernatural. PetroglyphsTattooingpainting, wood carving, stone carving and textile work are other common art forms.
Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest unbroken tradition of art in the world, dating as far back as 60, years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Some were used in magic, others to increase animal populations for hunting, while some were simply for amusement. Establishing a chronological timeframe for these pieces in most cases is difficult, but one has been dated to BC.
By BC the Lapita culture, descendants of the second wave, would begin to expand and spread into the more remote islands. At around the same time, art began to appear in New Guinea, including the earliest examples of sculpture in Oceania. Starting around AD, the people of Easter Island would begin construction of nearly moai large stone statues. At about AD, the people of Pohnpei, a Micronesian island, would embark on another megalithic construction, building Nan Madola city of artificial islands and a system of canals.
Native Hawaiians had neither metal nor woven cloth. Rugby union is one of the region's most prominent sports,  and is the national sport of New Zealand, Samoa, Fiji and Tonga. The most popular sport in Australia is cricketthe most popular sport among Australian women is netballwhile Australian rules football is the most popular sport in terms of spectatorship and television ratings.
Australian rules football is the national sport in Nauru  and is the most popular football code in Australia in terms of attendance. Currently Vanuatu is the only country in Oceania to call association football its national sport. However, it is also the most popular sport in KiribatiSolomon Islands and Tuvaluand has a significant and growing popularity in Australia. Australia has hosted two Summer Olympics: Melbourne and Sydney The Pacific Games formerly known as the South Pacific Games is a multi-sport event, much like the Olympics on a much smaller scale, with participation exclusively from countries around the Pacific.
It is held every four years and began in Australia and New Zealand competed in the games for the first time in North America. South America. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Geopolitical region in the Pacific Ocean.
This article is about the region. For the continent, see Australia continent. For other uses, see Oceania disambiguation. For the Australian film, see South West Pacific film.
Associated 2 list. External 18 list. Internal 8 list. Cities in Oceania. Main article: History of New Guinea. See also: History of the Federated States of Micronesia. Further information: Discovery and settlement of Hawaii and Polynesian navigation.
See also: List of Oceanian countries by population and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania. Main article: Demographics of Oceania. New Zealand. Federated States of Micronesia. Papua New Guinea. Easter Island. French Polynesia. Cook Islands.
New Caledonia. Kiribati Gilberts. Solomon Islands. Marshall Islands. Northern Marianas. Parece Vela. Coral Sea. Lord Howe. Three Kings. East Timor. This template: view talk edit. Main article: Religion in Oceania.
Main article: Economy of Oceania. Main article: Politics of Australia. Main article: Politics of New Zealand. This section needs expansion.
You can help by adding to it. October Main articles: Culture of Australia and Cuisine of Australia. Main articles: Culture of Samoa and Polynesian culture. See also: Sport in Oceania. Geography portal Oceania portal. Retrieved 9 November Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 5 January The Heritage Foundation.
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