Margaret runs to her father as Robert and Ruthven fight until the sun begins to rise. With Lord Ruthven's time up, he is struck down by lightning. Embedded deep within Eastern European legend loomed the morose creature of the Vampire. Roaming the hills often as a reanimated peasant, seeking the hot throbbing blood of the human being, this creature was hardly an attractive entity to its victims. Planche's gothic play, The Vampire existed as the first presentation of this acrimonious being as one who possessed great charm and elegance.
The novel persona of eloquent sophistication concealing the repugnant demon inside served as the incitement for the image of the modern day vampire. Other innovative elements such as the location of the play and technological advancements of stage machinery aided in the creation of this new personage through J.
Planche's new vision of Gothic literature. Inspired by English author John Polidori's gothic novel The Vampyrewritten inPlanche's play breathed life into this new character birthed from the writings of Polidori as Planche set him on the stage as a physical force with the capability of movement and thought. The reserved and aristocratic qualities of Lord Ruthventhe vampire in Planche's play, originally came to fruition out of English novelist Polidori's influence from the wealthy estranged hermit-like qualities of the romantic poet George Gordon Byron, or more commonly known as simply Lord Byron.
On the intrigue of invention to increase this spectacle, Planche created a stage mechanism which was fostered out of his own desire to have a trap-door in the Lyceum Theatre. This trap, otherwise known as the vampire-trap because it gave expedited stage entry and exit to the vampireoperated on a mechanically innovative system.
This trap-door was composed of two flaps in the stage, usually made from Indian rubber, in which the occasion should arise where pressure should be applied to these two flaps they would give way and allow the subject creating the pressure to drop beneath the stage.
This trap-door proved to be of great importance to the play, for the sole reason that it was the solitary cause for Planche to write the play to install this ingenious piece of stage machinery into the stage of the Lyceum.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Recollections and Reflections of J. Fradbury, Evans, and Co. The Cambridge History of British Theatre to Cambridge: University Press, Boucicault himself played the lead role to great effect, though the play itself had mixed reviews.
Queen Victoria, who saw the play, described it in her diary as "very trashy". An important later example of 19th-century vampire fiction is the penny dreadful epic Varney the Vampirefeaturing Sir Francis Varney as the vampire. In this story, we have the first example of the standard trope in which the vampire comes through the window at night and attacks a maiden as she lies sleeping.
Fascinating erotic fixations are evident in Sheridan Le Fanu 's classic novella Carmillawhich features a female vampire with lesbian inclinations who seduces the heroine Laura while draining her of her vital fluids.
Le Fanu's story is set in the Duchy of Styria. Such central European locations became a standard feature of vampire fiction. In German literature, one of the most popular novels was Hans Wachenhusen's Der Vampyr — Novelle aus Bulgarienwhich, on account of the author's first-hand experience of Ottoman society, includes a detailed description of the multicultural society of Bulgaria, and which contains an atmosphere that is "in some parts comparable to Dracula ".
Bram Stoker's Dracula has been the definitive description of the vampire in popular fiction for the last century. Its portrayal of vampirism as a disease contagious demonic possessionwith its undertones of sex, blood, and death, struck a chord in a Victorian Britain where tuberculosis and syphilis were common.
Stoker likely drew inspiration from Irish myths of blood-sucking creatures. He was also influenced by Le Fanu's Carmilla. Stoker's vampire hunter Abraham Van Helsing was a strong influence on subsequent vampire literature. Though Stoker's Count Dracula remained an iconic figure, especially in the new medium of cinemaas in the film Nosferatu20th-century vampire fiction went beyond traditional Gothic horror and explored new genres such as science fiction. Possibly the most influential example of modern vampire science fiction is Richard Matheson 's I Am Legend The protagonist is the sole survivor of a pandemic of a bacterium that causes vampirism.
He must fight to survive attacks from the hordes of nocturnal creatures, discover the secrets of their biology, and develop effective countermeasures. The latter part of the 20th century saw the rise of multi-volume vampire epics. It also set the trend for seeing vampires as poetic, tragic heroes rather than as the traditional embodiment of evil.
Ross, Rice and Yarbro set the trend for multi-volume vampire sagas which are now a stock feature of mass-market fiction see below for list. Rice's work also saw the beginning of the convergence Adeonesis - Victims of the Vampire (File traditional Gothic ideas with the modern Gothic subculture and Adeonesis - Victims of the Vampire (File more explicit exploration of the transgressive sexualities which had always been implicit in vampire fiction.
The novel The Hunger adapted as a film in continued the theme of open sexuality and examined the biology of vampires, suggesting that their special abilities were the result of physical properties of their blood. The novel suggested that not all vampires were undead humans, but some were a separate species that had evolved alongside humans.
This interpretation of vampires has since then been used in several science-fiction stories dealing with vampires, most famously the Blade movie series.
The novel Fevre Dream by notable author George R. Martin tells the tale of a race of living vampires, extremely human-like but obligate predators on humans, set in the Mississippi Riverboat era, where one of them has developed a dietary supplement to "cure" them, and is fighting for the right and opportunity to distribute it. Kim Newman 's Anno Dracula series — returns to Stoker's Count Dracula, looking at an alternate world where Dracula defeated Van Helsing's MP3) and conquered Britain, and gives the genre a somewhat postmodern spin.
The television series Buffy the Vampire Slayercreated and largely written by Joss Whedonalso explored vampire folklore in the light of postmodern and feminist theorydefining the 'condition' as humans who were made to drink vampire blood after the vampire drinks from them, with turned vampires being essentially demons possessing human corpses; Buffy and its spin-off, Angelalso feature the character of Angel in a prominent role, with Angel being a vampire who was cursed with his soulrestoring his capacity for compassion, but also forcing him to live with the guilt of what he did as a regular vampire.
One of the more traditional vampire works of the 20th century is Stephen King 's 'Salem's Lotwhich re-imagines the archetypal Dracula -type story in a modern American small town setting. King acknowledged the influence of Dracula on the work, as well as the violent, pre- Comics Code vampires portrayed in horror comics such as those released by E. Ina comprehensive bibliography of vampire literature was published - Margaret L Carter's The Vampire in Literature.
Many books based on vampires are still being published, including several continuing series. Paranormal romanceinspired by Anne Adeonesis - Victims of the Vampire (File, but mostly dropping the open sexuality of her characters in favor of more conventional sexual roles, is a remarkable contemporary publishing phenomenon.
However, Laurell K. Hamilton 's Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series has again shifted the genre boundaries from romance back toward the territory of erotica. In the field of juvenile and young adult literature, Darren Shan wrote a book series The Saga of Darren Shan about a boy who becomes a vampire's assistant, beginning with Cirque Du Freak and ending with Sons of Destiny A film adaptation has been made of the first three books called Cirque du Freak: The Vampire's Assistant He is also currently writing a prequel to the Sagaa series of four books all about Larten Crepsley one of the main characters starting with Birth of a Killer and finishing with Brothers to the Death Ellen Schreiber created a young adult series about Raven Madison and her vampire boyfriend Alexander Sterling, starting with Vampire Kisses In Scott Westerfeld 's young adult novel Peepsthe protagonist carries a contagious parasite that causes vampire-like behavior.
The king of vampires, Count Dracula, also continues to inspire novelists, for example Elizabeth Kostova in The Historian The story takes place in Blackeberga suburb of Stockholm. This particular novel does not follow the modern romantic trend, and instead focuses on a human-vampire friendship. Crucially, it retains many of the vampire traits popularized by Dracula. Dimitris Lyacos 's second book of the Poena Damni trilogy With the People from the Bridge handles the vampire legend in the context of a ritualistic post-theatrical drama performance.
Peter Watts ' novel Blindsight has explored a scientific basis for vampires, depicting them as an evolutionary offshoot from humanity who were not the dominant species on the planet solely due to an evolutionary glitch making them averse to Euclidean geometry right angles cause seizures in what is called "Crucifix Glitch", leading to them dying out when modern technology with all its structures swept the world.
Implied to have vastly superior intelligence and problem-solving capabilities, they were recreated from gene snippets for special tasks, with special drugs alleviating their crucifix glitch.
One particularly important vampire trait is their ability to hibernate for extended periods of time, which makes cryogenic stasis possible and is applied to astronauts via gene-therapy. At the end of the novel it is implied the vampires have taken control of earth and may be exterminating baseline humanity.
In recent years, vampire fiction has been one of many supernatural fiction genres used in the creation of mashups. These works combine either a pre-existing text or a historic figure with elements of genre fiction. One of the best-known of these works is Abraham Lincoln, Vampire Hunter by Seth Grahame-Smithin which the historic Abraham Lincoln has a fictional secret identity as a hunter of evil vampires.
The traits of the literary vampire have evolved from the often repulsive figures of folklore. Fictional vampires can be romantic figures, often described as elegant and sexy compare demons such as succubi and incubi.
This is in stark contrast to the vampire of Eastern European folklore, which was a horrifying animated corpse. However, as in folklore, the literary vampire is sustained by drinking blood.
They do not need other food, water, or even oxygen. They are sometimes portrayed as being unable to eat human food at all, forcing them to either avoid public dining Adeonesis - Victims of the Vampire (File mime chewing and eating to deceive their mortal victims.
The fictional vampire, however, often has a pale appearance rather than the dark or ruddy skin of folkloric vampires and their skin is cool to the touch. As in folklore, literary vampires can usually be warded off with garlic and symbols of the Christian faith, such as holy watera crucifixor a rosary.
According to literary scholar Nina Auerbach in Our Vampires, Ourselvesthe influence of the moon was seen as dominant in the earliest examples of vampire literature:. For at least fifty years after Adeonesis - Victims of the Vampire (File Vampire, the moon was the central ingredient of vampire iconography; vampire's solitary and repetitive lives consisted of incessant deaths and — when the moon shone down on them — quivering rebirths. Ruthven, Varney and Raby need marriage and blood to replenish their vitality but they turn for renewed life to the moon Bram Stoker's Dracula was hugely influential in its depiction of vampire traits, some of which are described by the novel's vampire expert Abraham Van Helsing.
Dracula has the ability to change his shape at will, his featured forms in the novel being that of a wolf, bat, mist and fog. He can also crawl up and down the vertical external walls of his castle in the manner of a lizard. One very famous trait that Stoker added is the inability to be seen in mirrors, which is not found in traditional Eastern European folklore, as Stoker combined the folklore of Jiangshi being terrified of their own reflection with the material fact of the silver backed mirrors of the time.
Dracula also had protruding teeth, though was preceded in this by Varney the Vampire and Carmilla. In Anne Rice's books, the vampires appear their best self of the age they were turned into a vampire; for instance, when Claudia was turned into a vampire, her golden curls became tight and voluminous, her skin turns a pale but smooth and clear, and rids her of the rotting disease. In Black Marshthere is the Whet-Fang sodality, whose members use of magicka to keep captives catatonic and harvest from them the "red nectar".
Vampire groups exist in Elsweyr and the Summerset Islesbut not much is known about them. The bloodline of Lamae Beolfag is afflicted by the disease Noxiphilic Sanguivoria rather than the more common Porphyric Hemophilia and Sanguinare Vampiris.
As a consequence, the vampires of this group neither burn nor weaken in the sunlight, but rather become more powerful once night falls. Their abilities include invisibility. A particular way of acquiring this strand of vampirism is through the Rite of Scionin which a mortal's blood is fully replaced by that of Lamae herself.
This rite turns one afflicted by vampirism into a Sciona stronger variety of vampire. These vampires don't worship Molag Bal, but rather hate him in accordance with Lamae's will. Having new recruits profane symbols of Bal is part of the ritual. Most vampires trace their lineage to a distant common ancestor, an unwilling Nedic virgin called Lamae Beolfag   commonly referred to as Bloodmatron Lamae,  Lamae Bal   and Blood-matron who was defiled by Molag Bal.
With her, he spawned the race of monsters known as vampires, who then set upon nomads, spreading his corruption further. The Tribunal Temple's doctrine teaches a different version of the origin of vampires, but still sees Bal as their progenitor. In the legend, Molag Bal called the "Father of Monsters" spawned the first vampire upon the corpse of a defeated foe, whose nature varies by account. In some versions, the foe is a Daedra Lord, in others a Temple Saint or a powerful beast.
It is noted that such legend only appears in Morrowind's lore.
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