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When Starlings Fly

Redwing migration The first redwings reach the UK in October. Starling migration Many starlings come to the UK for the winter. Swallow migration By early May, most swallows have started breeding. Swift migration Swifts need warm weather to provide a constant supply of flying insects, so they spend only about three months in the UK. Wheatear migration All wheatears spend winter in tropical Africa, then head north in spring.

Cookie Preferences. Accepting all non-essential cookies helps us to personalise your experience. Edit settings. Integrated Authority File Germany. Microsoft Academic. Categories : English phrases Navigation English-language idioms Metaphors referring to birds s neologisms.

Namespaces Article Talk. Order : Galliformes Family : Odontophoridae. The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the When Starlings Fly World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.

Order : Galliformes Family : Phasianidae. Phasianidae consists of the pheasants and their allies. These are terrestrial species, variable in size but generally plump with broad relatively short wings. Many species are gamebirds or have been domesticated as a food source for humans.

Order : Podicipediformes Family : Podicipedidae. Grebes small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers.

However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. Order : Columbiformes Family : Columbidae. Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. Order : Cuculiformes Family : Cuculidae. The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners, and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails, and strong legs.

The Old World cuckoos are brood parasites. Order : Caprimulgiformes Family : Caprimulgidae. Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground.

They have long wings, short legs, and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is cryptically colored to resemble bark or leaves. Order : Apodiformes Family : Apodidae. The swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying.

These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have very long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang. Order : Apodiformes Family : Trochilidae.

Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards. Order : Gruiformes Family : Rallidae. Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules.

The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe.

Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.

Order : Gruiformes Family : Gruidae. Cranes are large, long-legged, and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". Order : Charadriiformes Family : Recurvirostridae.

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. Order : Charadriiformes Family : Charadriidae. The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short thick necks, and long, usually pointed, wings.

They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water. Order : Charadriiformes Family : Scolopacidae. Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers, and phalaropes.

The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of legs and bills enable multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. Order : Charadriiformes Family : Stercorariidae. Skuas and jaegers are in general medium to large birds, typically with gray or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding.

They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings, and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. Order : Passeriformes Family : Regulidae. The kinglets are a small family of birds which resemble the titmice. They are very small insectivorous birds. The adults have coloured When Starlings Fly, giving rise to their name.

Order : Passeriformes Family : Bombycillidae. The waxwings are a group of passerine birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look When Starlings Fly sealing wax and give the group its name.

These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. Order : Passeriformes Family : Sittidae. Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet. Order : Passeriformes Family : Certhiidae.

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. Order : Passeriformes Family : Polioptilidae. These dainty birds resemble Old World warblers in their structure and habits, moving restlessly through the foliage seeking When Starlings Fly. The gnatcatchers are mainly soft bluish grey in colour and have the typical insectivore's long sharp bill.

Many species have distinctive black head patterns especially males and long, regularly cocked, black-and-white tails. Order : Passeriformes Family : Troglodytidae. Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their loud songs. They have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright.

All are insectivorous. Order : Passeriformes Family : Mimidae. The mimids are a family of passerine birds which includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull greys and browns in their appearance.

Order : Passeriformes Family : Sturnidae. Starlings and mynas are small to medium-sized Old World passerine birds with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct and most are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. The plumage of several species is dark with a metallic sheen. Order : Passeriformes Family : Cinclidae.

Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements.

These birds have adaptations which allows them to submerge and walk on the bottom to feed on insect larvae. Order : Passeriformes Family : Turdidae. The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. Order : Passeriformes Family : Muscicapidae.

This rearranged form gives the threshold for how long S 1 must be for an animal to choose to eat both prey 1 and prey 2. In nature, generalists include a wide range of prey items in their diet. These types of animals are defined as specialists and have very exclusive diets in nature. Additionally, since the choice to eat prey2 is dependent on the abundance of prey1 as discussed earlierif prey1 becomes so scarce that S1 reaches the threshold, then the animal should switch from exclusively eating prey1 to eating both prey1 and prey2.

As previously mentioned, the amount of time it takes to search for a prey item depends on the density of the prey. Functional response curves show the rate of prey capture as a function of food density and can be used in conjunction with the optimal diet theory to predict foraging behavior of predators. There are three different types of functional response curves.

For a Type I functional response curve, the rate of prey capture increases linearly with food density. At low prey densities, the search time is long. Since the predator spends most of its time searching, it eats every prey item it finds. As prey density increases, the predator is able to capture the prey faster and faster. At a certain point, the rate of prey capture is so high, that the predator doesn't have to eat every prey item it encounters.

For a Type II functional response curve, the rate of prey capture negatively accelerates as it increases with food density. In other words, as the food density increases, handling time increases.

At the beginning of the curve, rate of prey capture increases nearly linearly with prey density and there is almost no handling time. As prey density increases, the predator spends less and less time searching for prey and more and more time handling the prey. The rate of prey capture increases less and less, until it When Starlings Fly plateaus. The high number of prey basically "swamps" the predator. A Type III functional response curve is a sigmoid curve.

The rate of prey capture increases at first with prey density at a positively accelerated rate, but then at high densities changes to the negatively accelerated form, similar to that of the Type II curve. The predator is able to be choosy and doesn't eat every item it finds. However, at low prey densities the bottom of the curve the rate of prey capture increases faster than linearly. This phenomenon is known as prey switching. Predator—prey coevolution often makes it unfavorable for a predator to consume certain prey items, since many anti-predator defenses increase handling time.

In addition, because toxins may be present in many prey types, predators include a lot of variability in their diets to prevent any one toxin from reaching dangerous levels. Thus, it is possible that an approach focusing only on energy intake may not fully explain an animal's foraging behavior in these situations. The marginal value When Starlings Fly is a type of optimality model that is often applied to optimal foraging.

This theorem is used to describe a situation in which an organism searching for food in a patch must decide when it is economically favorable to leave. While the animal is within a patch, it experiences the law of diminishing returnswhere it becomes harder and harder to find prey as time goes on.

This may be because the prey is being depleted, the prey begins to take evasive action and becomes harder to catch, or the predator starts crossing its own path more as it searches. The curve starts off with a steep slope and gradually levels off as prey becomes harder to find. Another important cost to consider is the traveling time between different patches and the nesting site.

An animal loses foraging time while it travels and expends energy through its locomotion. In this model, the currency being optimized is usually net energy gain per unit time. The constraints are the travel time and the shape of the curve of diminishing returns. Graphically, the currency net energy gain per unit time is given by the slope of a diagonal line that starts at the beginning of traveling time and intersects the curve of diminishing returns Figure 3.

In order to maximize the currency, one wants the line with the greatest slope that still touches the curve the tangent line. The place that this line touches the curve provides the optimal decision rule of the amount of time that the animal should spend in a patch before leaving.

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8 Responses to When Starlings Fly

  1. Vudora says:

    Jul 18,  · Starlings will go after suet, seed and mealworms with a persistence that is both pretty awe inspiring and very frustrating. Over the years, I’ve honed strategies to keep starlings from taking over the feeders in my yard. Note: This post is an overview of how I .

  2. Merg says:

    This is a list of bird species confirmed in the Canadian province of otherwise noted, the list is that of Bird Checklists of the World as of June Of the species on the list, are accidental and eight were introduced to North America. One species is extinct and another probably is.. This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of .

  3. Tabar says:

    Sep 09,  · Broad-headed Marsh Fly on a Common Sunflower – Nikon D, f, 1/, ISO , Nikkor mm VR with x TC, natural light. I love it when I take twofer photos. These Broad-headed Marsh Fly photos are twofers. I got the hoverflies and the blooming Common Sunflowers in the same frames.

  4. Meztidal says:

    The expression as the crow flies is an idiom for the most direct path between two points, rather similar to "in a beeline".This meaning is attested from the early 19th century, and appeared in Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist: We cut over the fields at the back with him between us – straight as the crow flies – through hedge and ditch.

  5. Kasar says:

    We know a lot of factual information about the starling—its size and voice, where it lives, how it breeds and migrates—but what remains a mystery is how it f.

  6. Nerisar says:

    A distant murmuration of starlings—and yes, that really is the marvelous term for a group of these often-maligned birds—10, or more, rolls “like a drunken fingerprint across the sky,” as the poet Richard Wilbur wrote, smudging the dusk horizon with the quickness of a pulsating jellyfish. They often fly at speeds of 40 miles or.

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  8. Dushura says:

    Optimal foraging in starlings. Figure 5. If starlings are maximizing net rate of energy gain, longer traveling time results in larger optimum load. Adapted from Krebs and Davies. The foraging behavior of the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris, provides an example of how marginal value theorem is used to model optimal foraging.

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