Sa first recordings with her Joy Boys, later to be more generically called Her Orchestra, spanned five sessions in She grooved more titles with her band in '34 and ' Calloway could well be placed in Swing Jazz Song as well as her brother, Cab, five years younger than she but that she belongs on this page as a bandleader.
And a remarkable one at that, not only musically but in consideration of what she was up against: first the Depression, having to disband her orchestra in and declare bankruptcy. Un member of her band, taking a pistol whipping, was arrested with her.
Tandis que in jail another musician in her ensemble stole the band's funds, forcing Calloway to sell her yellow Cadillac for money, putting that tour to an end. Dans the fifties she headed for Washington D. It's said Calloway was the first black woman to vote in Florida in Calloway died in Baltimore in Paresseux Woman's Blues. I Got What It Takes.
Ses Right Here For You. It Looks Like Susie. Dernier Dollar. Faire Me Know It. Catch Sur. I Need Lovin'. What's a Poor Girl Gonna Do. Frankie Carle Source: Coast Pink. Frankie Carle Spanish Shawl. Frankie Carle Humoresque. Ridin' High. Frankie Carle Sunrise Serenade. Frankie Carle Estelle. Twelflth Street Rag. Frankie Carle Josephine. Frankie Carle Carle Boogie. What It Seemed to Be. One More Tomorrow. Rumors Are Flying. Frankie Carle Beg Your Pardon. Midnight Masquerade. Powder Blue. Frankie Carle Meditation.
Vincent Lopez and his Casa Lopez Orchestra. Rhythm of the Day. A Lane in Spain. I'll Just Go Along. Adios Muchachos. Let's Go to Town. Para vigo me voy.
She's a Bombshell from Brooklyn. Miami Beach Rhumba. Eso es el amor. Born in in Louisville, Kentucky, Lionel Hampton was a no-joke drummer bien qu'il more distinguished himself with the vibraphone. Born to a single mother who raised him largely in Chicago, he was nineteen or twenty years old when he left Chicago for California to drum for the Dixieland Blues-Blowers.
Hampton continued with Howard until a another big name came his way in Los Angeles, his first session with Louis Armstrong on July 31, Hampton stuck with Goodman intoby which time his own orchestra was in full swing. He issued his composition, 'Central Avenue Breakdown', in Hampton manufactured an extensive catalogue with every who's who in jazz passing through his band at one time or another.
The all-star group backing his album, 'You Better Know It!!! Hampton had married his business manager, Gladys Riddle, back in Upon her death in he never remarried. Hampton was a Republican and had worked LP) raise money for Israel. He also became involved in philanthropic housing projects in New York and New Jersey during the sixties. Ironically per his efforts in housing, in his own apartment caught fire and his possessions destroyed.
He was a 33rd degree Mason, thus associated for above fifty years. He had later become involved w Christian Science. References encyclopedic: 1, 2, 3, 4; musical: 1, 2, 3, 4 Sessions all: Lord; name: Hampton in visual media.
Internet Archives. U of Idaho Collection. Other profiles: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 6, 7, 8. The Ramble. Des trucs. Cuttin' Up.
On the Sunny Side of the Street. Early Session Hop. AC-DC Actuel. Hot Mallets. It Don't Mean a Thing. The Jumpin Jive. Memories of You.
Composition: Quincy Jones. Composition: Chick Corea. Though this history largely concerns American jazz we nevertheless enter musicians from abroad too essential to ignore. L'un de ces was British trombonist Ted Heath [1, 2, 3, 4], though he was better known as the UK's major version of a swing bandleader. Among one the more nonstop acts in jazz, Heath's career isn't going to fit in this small space but for a few major names. Among the more significant was the orchestra of Bert Ambrose, which he joined in time for 'Singapore Sorrows' on April 2, His first tracks with the band of Philip Lewis were laid on October 1,his last on August 19,resulting in 'Livin' In the Sunlight' etc.
Gardner last supported Heath's orchestra on January 28,for 'Wotcher! First recording with Phillips in the Bert Ambrose Orchestra on October 5, 'Dinner at Eight'Heath and Phillips partnered on multiple occasions, both backing other operations and each other. Heath put together his first band in to broadcast for the BBC. His first session as a leader that year bore such as 'South of the Border' and 'Caravan'. He first appeared in film, 'London Town', in It was that he hired vocalist, Lita Roza, to his orchestra, for which he is perhaps best known.
His second arrived in for Queen Elizabeth II. Heath toured the States, Australia and Europe a number of times over the years. In he managed to record nine albums.
Heath collapsed on stage on his 62nd birthday in of cerebral thrombosis. He continued to perform and record, though toured less, eventually dying in in Surrey, England. By the end of his career, spanning more than five decades, Heath had recorded more than a hundred albums, and sold 20 million of them. His band's library of commissioned original arrangements exceeded eight hundred.
Discographies: 1, 2, 3, 4 Heath in visual media. The earliest track below on which Heath definitely plays trombone is for the year on which he is neither featured nor distinguishable from other members of the band. The song received English lyrics in by Ralph Freed, Rayon Noble altering the melody a bit about that time as well.
Tommy Dorsey released a version in Nov on Victor. The song was also featured in the film, 'Ships Ahoy'. Camel Walk. Headin' for Louisville. Soft Shoe Shuffle.
Composition: Maurice Burman. Birmingham Bounce. Blacksmiths Blues. Composition: Jack Holmes. Hot Toddy. Skin Deep. Hawaiian War Chant. Carnegie Hall Drums: Ronnie Verrell. Amor, Amor. Drum Crazy. Composition: Irving Berlin. Source: Jazz Wax. Without You, Sweetheart. My Woman. How Could We be Wrong. Garder Young and Beautiful. As Long As I Live.
The Continental. Fare Thee Well. I've Had My Moments. Milenburg Joys. C'est a Plenty. Music: Lew Pollack Anything Goes. Cheek to Cheek. The Girl With the Dreamy Eyes. You Couldn't Be Cuter. Wednesday Night Hop. China Boy. Nobody's Sweetheart. After a While. Basin Street Blues. That Da-Da Strain. Exactly Like You. J'ai du rythme. Clarence Williams' Blue Five The Eel. Inside on the Southside.
Tea For Two. A good example of swing in full bloom is bandleader and clarinetist Benny Goodmangenerally designated the King of Swing. Born in in Chicago, Goodman's first recordings were at age 16 as a session clarinetist avec les deux Ben Pollack's Californians and his White Tops in Chicago.
Goodman is also listed on the issue of 'The Legendary Earl Baker Cylinders ', a collection of radio transcriptions performed in Goodman's first recordings with Pollack were also Glenn Miller's. Among Goodman's major credits are the hiring of pianist Ted Wilson and vibraphonist Lionel Hampton early in their careers when it wasn't proper for black and white musicians to play in the same band. Among recordings accounted essential in the Penguin Guide to Jazz [1, 2] was Goodman's delivery of the first jazz concert to be held at Carnegie Hall in NYC on 16 Janthat not released until [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].
Goodman's is also the orchestra with which Charlie Christian came to fame. Though Goodman experimented with bebop in the forties it wasn't his bag, and he returned to the swing of his major arranger, Fletcher Henderson. Goodman was also a classical musician, releasing his first classical recordings in with the Budapest Quartet. He died of heart attack on 13 June in New York City leaving a legacy of one of the largest catalogues in jazz.
References academic: CMS; encyclopedic: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 6; musical: 1 cached2, 3, 4, 5 6 Compositions. Discographies: 1, 2, 3, 4; albums.
Goodman in visual media. Interviews w Goodman: audio, audio, video, text. Deed I Do. Jungle Blues. Composition: Ferd Jelly Roll Morton. That's A Plenty. Wolverine Blues. Tappin' the Barrel.
I Wished on the Moon. Mademoiselle Brown to You. Sing, Sing, Sing. Composition: Louis Prima. Breakin' in a Pair of Shoes. Ses Been So Long. Pennies from Heaven. Stompin' at the Savoy. Composition: Edgar Sampson Celles-ci Foolish Things. Soft as Spring. Sugar Foot Stomp. Rattle and Roll. Slipped Disc. Composition: Benny Goodman.
Stealin' Apples. Lullaby of the Leaves. Clairon appel rag. Clarinet Concerto No. Let's Dance. Filmed live at the New York Marriott Marquis. Born in in Reserve, Louisiana, clarinet player Edmond Hall had been a farmhand until beginning his professional career in New Orleans in His last tracks with Hopkins were for the soundtrack to 'By Request' three years later. Hall led a number of orchestras during his career, though his catalogue is not so extensive as a leader.
The same year he debuted as a leader he joined Teddy Wilson's orchestra He had already toured Canada, the States, Europe and Ghana, and would make a failed attempt to live in Ghana in as a music instructor.
Hall is thought to have made his last studio recordings in Copenhagen in All Music has Hall recording as late as February 3,contributing to tracks on the album, 'Edmond Hall's Last Concert' tracks from included. He died nine days later of heart attack. Hall was overall a steady, clean-living, non-drinking preferring lemonadewife-faithful twice musician. Dernier Mile Blues. Profoundly Bleu. Bleu Interval. Nuit and Day. Quand Or Where. Flyin' High. Muskrat Ramble.
Hodges first played professionally as a kid, performing piano for eight dollars an evening. He was playing soprano sax by the time he was teenager and was making a local name for himself around Boston when he moved to New York City in After an unissued track with Chick Webb in he joined Ellington 's orchestra in Hodges attended above a thousand sessions during his career, most of them with Ellington up to 'New Orleans Suite' in Ellington's eighth, Hodges' final.
Ellington contributed piano, backing Hodges' bands numerously throughout the decades to come. Hodges is thought to have released his first album as a band leader, 'Passion Flower', in His last performance was at the Imperial Room in Toronto, Ontario, in He died of heart attack at the dentist several days later, while working on his eighth studio album, 'New Orleans Suite', per above.
All tracks for below are with Duc Ellington. Diga Diga Doo. Hot And Bothered. I Must Have That Man. Just a Memory. The Mooche. Tishomingo Blues. Yellow Dog Blues. It's Like Reaching For the Moon. Jeep's Blues. Passion Flower. Take the 'A' Train. Ne pas Get Around Much Anymore. Dead Drunk Blues. Misery Blues. Slow Driving Moan. I Would Do Anything for You. Mush Mouth.
Juste you, Just Me. Tip Tap and Toe. My Kinda Amour. As a student he played in the band of Boyd Senter in Denver, then dropped out of school to tour with bands that eventually took him to Los Angeles where he found spots avec Ben Pollack and Victor Young.
Miller first recorded with Pollack and his Californians on September 14,those unissued by Victor. Miller is also listed on the issue of 'The Legendary Earl Baker Cylinders ', a collection of radio transcriptions performed in By Miller's band was such a success he performed at Carnegie Hall that year.
Miller then began broadcasting on CBS for Chesterfield cigarettes on December 27,with la Andrews Sistersa series that would run nearly three years with 'Slumber Song' as its theme.
His last recordings for Chesterfield were on June 18, Victor issued 'Swing Low, Sweet Chariot' from that session. He was soon promoted to captain, then major, then even more swiftly downed over the English Channel in a plane with a faulty carburetor. Miller's last recordings had been in England in November ofradio transcriptions with his Army Air Force Band with which he'd given some performances.
The next month his plane went down while returning from a trip to Paris. All tracks below are chronological by year only. All for year are with the Army Air Force Band. Annie's Cousin Fannie. Dese Dem Dose. Solo Hop. Peu Brown Jug. Sunrise Serenade. Tuxedo Junction. Chattanooga Choo Choo. At Last. A String Of Pearls. All the Things You Are. Jeep Jockey Jump.
Moonlight Serenade. Smoke Get's In Your Eyes. War Bond Parade. Source: Glenn Miller Orchestra. Photo: 'Life' magazine Source: Jazz Lives. Born in in Chicago, drummer Gene Krupaexpanded the drums ensemble beyond the usual bass, cymbals and snare. Another on the 16th wrought 'Nobody's Sweetheart' and 'Liza'.
A load of recordings with Nicholsamong others, followed into Krupa remained with Goodman into Goodman was also a member of his Swing Band in ' Krupa and Goodman would record numerously together in various configurations throughout their careers.
Krupa had first worked with Hampton with Benny Goodman in and would record with Hampton often, both with Goodman and in Hampton 's orchestras. Teddy Wilson would drift in and out of his path on various occasions, including Krupa's bands.
Krupa recorded extensively both with other musicians and his own ensembles, often quartets. Highlights of his career include several occasions with Norman Granz' Jazz at the Philharmonic, the first on February 12, in Los Angeles. Krupa died of leukemia and heart failure in Yonkers, New York, in October I'm Nobody's Sweetheart. Starlight And Tulips. Blues of Israel. Jazz Me Blues. Three Little Words. Brush Drum Solo. Tambour Boogie. The Umbrella Man.
Three Little Fishies. She's Making Eyes At Me. You'll Find Out. Romeo Smith And Juliet Jones. Fuddy Duddy Watchmaker. Jingle Jangle Jingle. Ole Buttermilk Sky. Managua Nicaragua. Woody Wood-Pecker. Heureux Days Are Here Again. Harmonie paradis. Roi of Jazz Medley. Kleine Maat Little Pal. The Prisoner's Chanson. Chanson of the West Medley. There's Something In Your Eyes. Temps On My Hands. Amour Is the Sweetest Thing. Pagan Lune.
Good Night Sweetheart. Trois Wishes. Quoi A Perfect Combination. I Love You Truly. Ses All Forgotten Now. Midnight, the Stars and You. The Very Thought Of You. The Touch Of Your Lips. Born in in Portsmouth, Ohio, it is thought that violinist Stuff Smith was the first to use electric amplification on a violin. Il also recorded unissued tracks with Zach Whyte in '31 for Gennett, after which he went to New York City informed a sextet and took residence at the Onyx Club. Smith largely recorded with his own bands, though backed others such as Dizzy Gillespie on occasion.
He left the States to live in Copenhagen, capital of Denmark, in Completing well above sessions during his career, Smith is thought to have last recorded on March 3 and 4, in Villingen, Germany, for the album, 'Black Violin'. He died several months later in September in Munich. James Infirmary. Ici Come the Man With the Jive. I'se a Muggin'. You'se a Viper. Desert Sands. Don't You Think. Look At Me. Sauter Il. One O'clock Jump. Bugle Call Blues. After saxophone, trumpet is the main horn via which modern jazz advanced.
Born in Mobile, Alabama, inswing trumpeter Cootie Williams began his career at age fourteen with the Young Family Band, of which saxophonist, Lester Young, was also a member.
Ellington's orchestras would be Williams' main hammer intothose eleven or so years constituting his first of two long periods with Ellington. Among Williams' frequent longtime partners with Ellington was cornetist, Rex Stewart, who first joined Ellington 's orchestra on January 9,in Chicago for such as 'Admiration' and 'Farewell Blues'. Stewart recorded with Ellington 's orchestra to October 2 ofjust prior to William's last on the 28th per above. Williams hung with Goodman into Williams would grace Ellington 's operation for more than a decade, he last recording with Ellington a few months before the latter's death May '74 on February 10,at Georgetown University in Washington, D.
Williams' had been hugely prolific with above sessions to his name, some 57 his own. His final recordings are thought to have been at Carnegie Hall on April 5,guesting for Teresa Brewer. He died in New York City on September 15, In he was elected into the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame.
References: 1, 2, 3 Catalogs: 1, 2, 3, 4 Chronological Classics 1, 2, 3 Williams in visual media. Chicago Blues. Composition: James Johnson. Mournful Tho'ts. Downtown Uproar. Composition: Ellington. The previous paragraph cannot overshadow the generosity of the people who put on the Fest and the extreme generosity of those who create the music.
Bless them. And the nice young sound people who worked hard to make music sound as it should! More — including videos! Start planning to come to the Fest, to bring your friends, to sponsor a band. Any or all of these activities are so much more life-enhancing than Black Friday.
I come from the past century — where smoking was accepted in restaurants and jazz clubs. And I remember coming home from the latter with my clothing redolent of tobacco. But I would gladly take my clothes to the laundry room immediately for a chance to be in either of these places: the first, a vanished New York City; the second, a more recent San Francisco.
A good deal of inspiring music blossoms underground — I think of Mezzrow, and Smalls, and Fat Cat, that paradise of unusual pleasures: hot jazz, creative swing, a variety of games, soft couches from which one might never rise, and youngbloods having fun, playing games, coming in, out, and around. Here are several highlights of that late-afternoon session:.
All of the musicians in this edition of the Gotham City Band were well-known to me, many of them for over a decade, but the new fellow, Daniel Glass, is a stunning ensemble and solo drummer: he listens, he swings, and he has a whole peaceful arsenal of LP) sounds.
I am sitting in my suburban New York apartment awaiting a predicted blizzard, which means reacquainting myself with my essential inanimate pals, Ms.
Down Parka and Mr. Snow Shovel. The thought fills me with dread and gloom. But there are always palliatives, and what I offer you requires no prescription, no copay, no trip to the pharmacy. And it works just as well if the sun is blazing in through your windows. Hot jazz — performed and recorded in this century — is the organic remedy offered here.
The thermodynamic healing practitioners are known both as the First Thursday Band and the Yeti Chasers: Ray Skjelbred, piano, vocal, leader; Steve Wright, cornet, clarinet, alto and soprano saxophones, vocal; Dave Brown, string bass, vocal; Mike Daugherty, drums, vocal. They created these sounds at the Royal Room in Seattle, Washington. Higginbotham and Bob Hoskins at once.
Steve Wright reminds us that this approach to the alto saxophone, so satisfying, did not utterly vanish in Improvisers have always loved the subversive challenge of taking apparently inappropriate material sweet love ballads and making them swing. It sounds as if it was written in to be performed in a barroom, which is emotionally although not factually correct:.
Say the word. I feel better, and hope you do, too. We know him from when he came to Sydney on the Matson Line ships. It was composed music and lyrics in by the great Harry Warren we all know him using the name Harry Herschel and originally published by Robbins Music Corp.
As you go from place to place, Looking for some friendly face, You can hear the old town clock strike three; Then you wish you had your old gal back again. The gang leaves you there With an old time stall, While you go home and gaze At the four bare walls.
As you sit there in the gloom Of an empty silent room, As the hallway clock ticks through the night, Then you long to hear a knock upon your door. He died on October 3,peacefully, at his home in San Francisco. Even if he had never become friends with Jelly Roll Morton, Nat Cole, Mary Lou Williams, and many others, he would have been a remarkable man: a childhood in Vladivostok and Shanghai before he returned to California to stay.
Here is an official obituary — but Duff led such a richly varied life this summary cannot begin to tell more than the smallest bit of his tale. For me — a born hero-worshipper — Duff was the most real link with the past imaginable. Before anyone turns to the video, a few caveats.
Duff had lost his sight but could still get around his house without assistance, and he had some involuntary muscle movements — so the unsuspecting viewer might think he was terribly comfortable, but he wanted to talk about the days he recalled, and when the afternoon was over he was intent on having us come back soon for more.
Here are some excerpts from that long interview, with Leon asking Duff questions:. We knew and and know now we were in the presence of an Original: quirky, independent, someone who knew what was good and supported it no matter what the crowd liked.
I saw an older gentleman sitting in front of the band, as close as he could get, a drink on the table. He was dancing in his chair, his body replicating every wave of the music. And I suspect that enthusiasm, that deep curiosity and energy, sustained him for nearly a century.
That versatility counts for a good deal with me. But you get the idea. Son Jack Lord — banjo player and nominal leader of the ensemble captured here tells the story:. She and my dad met in high school, class of They loved jazz and were quite the dancers. They used to tell how everyone at a dance would stand in a circle around them and watch them do the Charleston they especially liked to dance to Sweet Georgia Brown. After following them around for several years, I LP) got the banjo chair.
My folks were huge fans, never missing a Chicago job. So for their 50th anniversary init seemed like a great idea to get as many of the old Dogs together and have a party at the Sabre Room where the band played many times in earlier days.
Much forgiveness is necessary for the quality of the recording as it was done on a little voice recorder. Intros are missed, tags are cut off, and to say the fidelity is poor is an understatement. However, I think it conveys the spirit of the evening with a very hot pick-up band.
Jack was fortunate in his choice of parents, and having this band play for their party is a true expression of gratitude — not only for them, but for the generations in this century who can now hear the music. Lord were our hosts on all our weekend gigs in Chicago. Jack wanted to do something special for their 50th wedding anniv. He partially succeeded with the exception of Jim Snyder, John Cooper, Bill Price, who were on other gigs the night in question.
None of us had played together for years. Jack had a small portable cassette player he left on all evening. This was a fun time. We had a ball playing. A few months later Jack sent me a copy of the cassette tape. Sound was not very good, but I worked on it for a long time—used what was marginal at best, and we decided to go ahead and release the CD.
Frank was outstanding and very relaxed in his solos as was Leon, Tom and the rest of us…even without a piano player. A true impromptu session of some great music and one hell-of-an-anniversary gift for Mr. Lord who loved it! Jack and Dick are correct but perhaps too severe in their assessment of the fidelity. What one hears in this slice of history is the party — from within the band.
And with no slight meant to the living members of this ad hoc gathering, any evidence of clarinetist Frank Chace in action is precious. I think none of the members of the band were excepting Jack particularly aware that a recorder was running, and certainly the partygoers do not sit in hushed silence, which leads to a particular kind of musical abandon.
I recommend it highly. The level of inspiration is very high, and it is a true glimpse behind the scenes of hot jazz in action.
I miss Frank Chace, and this CD is both exciting evidence of what he did so often during his playing years and reason to feel that we lost someone rare.
Questions or search engine terms in bold. These entries, I promise you, are recorded verbatim, not embellished or invented. My friend and teacher Wayne Jones passed away on Thursday, May He celebrated his 80th birthday on May 21, and married the devoted and caring Charlotte on May It is difficult to express just how much Wayne meant to me as a person and as an inspiration for drumming. From the time I met Wayne — at the St.
Louis Ragtime Festival — there was never a moment when I worried about his friendship. Though I had heard Wayne on s-era recordings by the Original Salty Dogs, hearing him live was a life-changing experience! He unerringly played exactly the right thing at the right time, with the right touch and the right volume, with an economy of motion, though I think he must have had the loosest wrists and fingers of any drummer I ever saw!
But with Wayne on drums, they were something else. Wayne swung when he played Traditional Jazz! Not only did Wayne inspire me with his onstage performances. He also made invaluable contributions to my Jazz education by sending boxes and boxes of reel later cassette tapes, LPs, CDs and photocopies of articles. No one ever had to question his sincerity or generosity. Years later, Wayne wrote some wonderful liner notes for projects I was involved in.
By the time he wrote those notes, I considered Wayne to be family. We had been playing for just a few minutes when Wayne wandered in. Obviously he was out for a stroll, in search of coffee for when he walked in the room he was in street clothes — no band uniform or musician badge. He found a seat near the back of the room and settled in to listen.
Louis, San Diego and elsewhere. Fortunately I had a couple of chances to visit Wayne at home while he was still able to talk and listen to music for extended periods of time.
He had slowed down considerably, but still had a fantastic sense of humor and well-informed opinions concerning a variety of subjects — particularly the contemporary Traditional Jazz scene. The cymbal went to a good home, where it is respected, well-cared-for and used in special circumstances only. On a recent phone call, Wayne had difficulty conversing on the phone. We got through the conversation — barely — and I wondered if that would be the last time we talked.
Unfortunately, it was. When I called again, he had fallen and was headed for the hospital. He scrutinized my playing with the usual poker face. Tom Bartlett wheeled around and grinned through his mouthpiece. Kim Cusack eyed me and gave a quick nod, as did Mike Walbridge. But, best of all, out in the audience Wayne looked up, set his jaw and slowly nodded his acknowledgement. I would not trade that moment for anything. Farewell, Wayne. Gogarty quotes him as having started to play guitar in By extension, the guitarist informed Jazz Hot in that he began playing the instrument in No documentation of the type of guitar Bauer initially played exists.
I cannot determine from my research whether Bauer specifically played an acoustic archtop as Eddie Lang did or flat top guitar. By contrast, Bauer notes in multiple interviews that he played a National Dobro resonator guitar in order to have increased volume on stage.
The latter augmented his performance as opposed to being its center. Unlike his initial banjo instructor, Antone did not emphasize reading music notation.
He just kept giving me chords: this is an augmented eleventh, this is a flat nine. I was indoctrinated with chords…. Ukulele Ike influenced Bauer to play ukulele; Harry Reser inspired him to play banjo. Although he mentions briefly listening to the preeminently popular and significant early guitarist Nick Lucas, Bauer never revealed a model for his early acoustic guitar playing.
By all accounts, the banjoist determined to learn this new instrument due primarily to its increasing popularity. Indeed, this undoubtedly influenced him to ultimately focus on the guitar to the exclusion of the banjo. The job lasted approximately one year. When Donnelly failed to honor his commitment, the manager asked Bauer to bring a group. A bandleader for the first time, he fronted a quintet including Harry Raab on piano, Frank Sokolow or Harry Davis on saxophone, and Williams on drums.
Charlie Christian was just about coming into the scene. His claim to have led a band at age twenty places this date as or In order to understand the latter, the facts of the former must be ascertained. By comparison, his initial contact with electric guitar acquires historical significance. Numerous musicians preceded Bauer on the ukulele and acoustic.
Still, independent sources do not unequivocally confirm his assertion that he first performed on electric guitar at age twenty. However, Christian gained regional fame in the South Central United States prior to recording with Goodman in ; a twenty year old Bauer would not likely have heard him.
By extension, Bauer may have intended to refer to a change in his playing style rather than his decision to play an electric guitar. The Nash Tavern closed two years after Bauer led a band at the establishment. According to the guitarist A big producer named Wilson … hired me and Harry to bug his ex-wife. This constitutes the earliest record of the guitarist playing in Manhattan. As with their Neversink River excursion, photos of the duo show Bauer with an acoustic guitar rather than an electric.
According to the Census, he still resided with his parents, who by this point moved to Watson Avenue in the Bronx. The following year, Bauer married Marion, a woman he met years earlier while playing a job at which she danced as a chorus girl. Enjoying increasing financial independence, Bauer and his wife initially moved into an apartment on the Upper West Side of Manhattan before finding accommodations in the Bronx.
With Wald, the guitarist now traveled as far away as Ohio. Comparing the experiences to the Greenwich Village jam sessions he frequented, Bauer seemed content with the polish and craft of this organization. In this band they could all read. They could write. They played better jazz, too. It seems to me these guys could do everything. He would possibly record with Wald inand rejoin him in a recording.
Unable to sight-read his parts, the guitarist sought a teacher who could assist him. Bauer studied with Reuss for three weeks. He taught me to get the chords by using only three or four strings to get different voicings. Although his solo lasts for twelve measures, Bauer does not play on blues chord changes. He did not want to travel to New Orleans with the group.
Bauer continued to play in commercial big bands throughout the year. A memorable occasion happened during a two week engagement at The Strand Theatre on April 9. That same evening, he received news that Marion bore their first child, a daughter they named Pamela. In latebandleader Abe Lyman gave the guitarist a third opportunity to play with a commercial big band. He switched guitars during this period, employing an Epiphone Deluxe model that he would use for the remainder of the decade.
Between these periods, he worked with big band leader Henry Jerome where he received regular features on guitar. The job afforded the guitarist his first opportunity to perform with prominent jazz musicians, including guests such as Teddy Wilson.
I got a job up in Canada for a couple of weeks. Do you want to go? In a March issue of Metronome, future Bauer champion Barry Ulanov gave a modest review of a recent Lyman concert. The guitarist recalls the United States Government offering to recruit him as a spy.
A producer heard the tune and inquired to Lyman for copyright. The bandleader brought a contract to Bauer with the composition attributed to the guitarist, Pollack, and Lyman.
Bauer adamantly refused to sign the contract. It would not be his first brush with copyright issues. He had performed on radio countless times, finally recording in the studio at the age of twenty-five. Like so many musicians of his generation, he made the important switch from banjo to guitar, ultimately selecting the electric. Moreover, he improved his musicianship, gaining experience sight-reading while performing with commercial big bands.
However, widespread recognition alluded him. Fortunately for Bauer, an opportunity for greater praise would soon find him. Woody Herman was calling. On his recording with Carl Hoff, he accompanies the band in the customary manner of a chord on each beat. His early association with Phillips influenced the guitarist to hear music differently. By comparison, the other musician to profoundly affect Bauer in specifically altered his guitar playing. I 6 Bauer and Luba, Sideman, A syncopated accompaniment in which the rhythm section player provides irregular harmonic punctuations behind the improviser, comping fascinated the Bauer.
Accustomed to delineating the beat through his banjo and subsequent guitar playing thus limiting his harmonic palette he began to sparingly incorporate this new style into his performances. I had heard of his name, but then his band was playing the blues, you know. By the time we came in, the band took on a different flavor. The earliest recordings Bauer made with Herman occurred on April 5, Bauer joined as the group initially peaked in popularity.
George Simon epitomized this tendency as early as He played enthusiastically beside other rhythm section members Teddy Wilson, Chubby Jackson, and Dave Tough, but fellow guitarist Tiny Grimes took the solos. No longer required to function as a rhythm guitarist, Bauer found in Tristano a context in which to further experiment with the same exploratory sensibility he had with Phillips in Indeed, Tristano mandated that Bauer play differently.
By contrast, his work with Herman lies somewhere between his early commercial employment and the decidedly non-commercial music he made with Tristano.
Scholars Scott DeVeaux and Bernard Gendron have notably discussed manifestations of this tendency that emerged retrospective and contemporaneous to the bop era. As the Bauer quote that begins this chapter elucidates, the guitarist also viewed his role with Herman as primarily rhythmic. They demonstrate that such playing did not exist in a vacuum; it did not emerge from nothingness. It also established that the young guitarist still felt the influence of Charlie Christian and Django Reinhardt.
Bauer understates this influence in some interviews while acknowledging it elsewhere. Inhe told Jazz Hot that he listened to Christian and Reinhardt but did not copy them. I just took the Charlie Christian route. The trills and drawn out pitch bends played by the guitarist in his first and fifth measures reveal an undeniable Christian influence. On October 2, Flip Phillips assembled a nonet predominantly culled from the Herman band in a New York City studio to record four titles for the Signature label.
Regardless, the composition and arrangement constitute remarkable writing for any small group at the dawn of the bop era. This segues to nine more measures of a riff over V-I harmony, completing the first A section.
A muted Hefti follows with an eight bar bridge, and Harris plays the three measure line at the beginning of the final A section. The metrical framework of the tune seemingly conforms to a twelve bar blues with a bridge. However, the inclusion of the three measure melodic fragment at the beginning of each A section obscures that framework. The subsequent structure is more intriguing. While Jackson plays a pedal point for eighteen measures, Bauer, Phillips, Sachs, and Harris each play a line implying a separate key signature.
A chromatic ascension follows, with Bauer and Burns subsequently playing two sixteen measure solos prior to Phillips playing a thirty-two measure chorus. Bauer still displays a slight Christian influence. After a four bar solo by Tough, the band begins to play chromatically descending and ascending lines before concluding the tune. The guitarist again joined Phillips and the Herman rhythm section eight days later for another Signature session, with Hyams absent and Bill Shine replacing Sachs on clarinet.
He does not solo on the other recordings. Subsequent April and June sessions under the respective leadership of Phillips and Herman find Bauer playing in the same fashion: rhythm Diga Diga Doo - Artie Shaw - The Swinging Big Bands (1938/1945) - Artie Shaw - Vol. 1 (Vinyl with no improvisations or comping. Jackson concentrated on solos while Fishkind played walking bass. He doubles the melody with either Burns or Jackson on every tune, and any discernable influence from either Christian or Reinhardt is largely gone.
The most arresting features of the music reveal the uniqueness of this session. The former tune begins with Bauer playing a long tone open high E on his string first or thinnest string. Jackson follows almost immediately with a short flurry of notes that blur any semblance of tonality.
The guitarist improvises on the bridge, playing long eighth note lines more evenly than Christian. However, the singularly remarkable event in the recording occurs midway. After harmonizing a riff, Bauer and Burns improvise simultaneously while Fishkind and Manne accompany. Simultaneous improvisation was not unprecedented in ; it characterized much earlier jazz.
By extension, the musical ideas that Bauer and Burns play are rather conventional. Still, their musical partnership had little precedent in modern jazz, where simultaneous improvisation of this type would soon albeit briefly fall out of fashion. Bauer and Burns again improvise simultaneously, this time toward the beginning of the recording.
For example, during their bridge Bauer uses additional polytonal ideas. The manifestations of his explorations with Phillips were becoming apparent. Rodgers wrote the arrangement. A total of five takes were recorded; three takes one, four, and five survive. Bauer solos on the first and fourth take while solely playing rhythm on the fifth take. As with his work recorded the previous autumn with Jackson, his improvisations on takes one and four achieve a more individual quality.
Bauer also figures significantly in the arrangement, doubling the melody stated by Norvo and Rowles. Following a short introduction, in the second and fourth measures of the melody Bauer uses a technique rarely employed by guitarists of the time: a volume swell. Using a pick, Bauer plays a chord while his volume control is off and subsequently increases volume after the initial attack. Consequently, the guitarist sounds as if he is playing with a bow.
By contrast, during this era of jazz it was exceedingly rare. Three days after this session, Herman brought together the same personnel with Rodgers added to record three more tunes.
Ralph Burns wrote the arrangement. After the guitarist states the melody with Burns and solos on the bridge, the rhythm section plays a short melody before the band stops. Bauer and Jackson then perform a duet, with Jackson soloing while the guitarist plays chords behind him.
The chord voicings and rhythm Bauer uses are conventional for the period. Indeed, based on a live performance from this era, they seem to be part of the arrangement. By contrast, on the studio version Bauer colors his chords through an electronic effect virtually anomalous in jazz history. He uses the vibrato effect on his amplifier, allowing the guitar to sound like a vibraphone.
Bauer would never employ it again. He additionally solos on the latter tune, splitting a thirty-two bar chorus with Rowles. Shorty Rodgers and Ralph Burns made the arrangement. Woody recorded it. The arrangements of the and versions are virtually identical, with the major exception of the four measure introduction and coda on the latter version.
Phillips plays the second melodic statement on the version, whereas Ray Wetzel plays it on trumpet in the arrangement. Phillips plays the third statement on the V-Disc version, while he and Berman play it together on the latter version.
Bill Harris plays the final melodic statement on both versions, and the coda included in the Columbia recording concludes with a brief moment by Bauer. After two more recording sessions on May 22 and 24, Bauer left the band. As a soloist, Bauer developed an increasingly unique voice, gradually eschewing the influences of Charlie Christian and to a lesser extent Django Reinhardt.
He gained experience improvising collectively in a modern jazz context, and he crafted unusual compositions, exposing a complex musical mind.
ByJulian employed a technique that transcended his earlier innovations. Everybody was playing with a pick in those days. Nobody was playing fingerstyle guitar on an electric guitar. Julian played almost like George Van Epsbut it was a little more jazzy. Still with Herman, Bauer occasionally invited Julian to visit him backstage.
Tragically, he lost some of his fingers in a machine accident. Bauer recalled that a determined Julian continued to play. Consequently, few jazz historians are aware of his achievements. Oscar Aleman, who played with the fingers of his right hand, also used a thumb pick. Moreover, recordings from elucidate that George Van Eps persisted in using a pick during the era. From the time he began playing banjo, Bauer used a pick for soloing and accompaniment.
It created vast possibilities for his sound. By the summer ofBauer grew tired of traveling. Despite national recognition and a few pay raises, Bauer left the popular group in August. The young father and husband wanted to spend time with his family. However, his departure from the jazz scene would not last. A brief attempt to gain fortune through horse race gambling proved predictably unsustainable, and Bauer soon found himself practicing again.
He forged an identity as a rhythm guitarist while honing his skills as a single-line soloist. In addition, his contact with Zeb Julian exposed him to the idea of using his thumb and fingers instead of a pick in order to create new sounds on his instrument. While his career to this point would have suggested another commercial big band opportunity for the guitarist, he surprisingly decided to perform with an obscure experimental pianist on Long Island.
Jackson collaborated with journalist Leonard Feather on a proposed summer package-tour to feature the winners of the Esquire Magazine poll. Jackson preoccupied himself with playing alongside fellow poll winners with the intention of 1 As of the April submission of this thesis, this chapter is incomplete. The venture was to be a particularly important showcase for the largely unknown pianist. Fishkin notes the occasions were both artistically stimulating and financially rewarding.
He used multiple chord substitutions replacing the replacement of a chord in a sequence borrowed from a popular tune and superimpose unusual meters atop a four-bar phrase; additionally, he favored extended chord voicings with unusual intervals.
The pianist preferred to use the chord structure of 6 Bauer and Luba, Sideman, Consequently, the two musicians clashed in performance despite their personal affinity. The influence of Zeb Julian emboldening his interest in new techniques on guitar notwithstanding, Bauer was supporting a family, and he straddled these two worlds of aesthetic exploration and commercial viability. Despite playing briefly with Jackson in recording with him in April and May, and performing with him in Philadelphia in a band fronted by Charlie Ventura later that summerBauer would remain with Tristano.
Byhe desired to remain close to New York City rather than continue a life on the road. By extension, while Bauer largely played by ear, the tonally ambiguous context created by Tristano did not result in careless playing by the guitarist. Although this instrumentation mirrored the popular Nat Cole trio, the music was remarkably different. However, he seemed to contribute the name rather than the tune. According to Bauer, the latter resulted from a group improvisation. We were only jamming.
Recorded a little less than one month later on August 22, the next documentation of Bauer with Tristano must stand as one of the more unusual contexts for the pianist.
For Bauer, it was old territory. By contrast, for Tristano these were relatively unfamiliar waters. While this was not the earliest record of Tristano playing with a woodwind and brass front line, it is his earliest known live date on record. By extension, it is his earliest known live recording with Bauer. Bauer joined Tristano for another trio recording session on October 23 for Savoy records.
John Levy filled in the bass chair. Playing less frenetically, his technique sounds cleaner and more even than many contemporaries.
He completed by recording ten more tracks with Tristano: six with the original trio featuring Fishkind, and four more with the addition of LaPorta. Still, there are moments on these sessions during which the playing is so abstract and the tonality so oblique that many of the tunes would come close to qualifying as early free jazz where it for them being contrafacts, The addition of LaPorta signaled a growing desire in Tristano to add a front line of woodwinds, and his dry tone seems to anticipate the sound of Konitz one year later.
In the meantime, Bauer would participate in another landmark small group featuring two very different clarinetists: veteran Benny Goodman and newcomer Stan Hasselgard. In conjunction with Tristano, Bauer recorded all-star sessions in with bop paragons Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, and Fats Navarro, further solidifying his status as an advanced guitarist.
Moreover, as a testament to his versatility as well as his curiosity, Bauer seems to resist a definitive style in favor of options. Maybe … both ways are right. But what the Tristano trio is doing is much freer.
Perpetually in pursuit of a lofty standard, his insecurity thus derived partly from a desire to improve. As Ulanov reported, musicians also noticed this. If Bauer had not changed, his self-deprecation did not inhibit his musical aspirations; by contrast, LP) emerged from them.
As his prominence and popularity increased, so did his willingness to perform and record. That situation would drastically change within fifteen years. Ironically, in the guitarist found few circumstances in which to realize these ambitions. Undoubtedly, the recording ban among union musicians bore much of the blame. Still, there are also few accounts of him publically performing. Lennie Tristano scholar Eunmi Shim notes two mentions of the pianist playing that year. Still, Simon neglected to 5 Shim, Lennie Tristano, For an apparent modernist, the affiliation involved an unlikely employer.
At the dawn ofone of the most successful and conspicuous jazz musicians in America had virtually retired.
Promised greater artistic control over his recording repertoire, he joined Capitol Records. The impetus for this decision was tenor saxophonist Wardell Gray. Upon first hearing the saxophonist, Goodman became interested in the possibilities of bop.
During a second Just Jazz concert in December, the clarinetist asked the Gray to guest with his combo. He was taking care of him so he could get started.
For the era, the front line consisted of an unusual triumvirate: two clarinetists, one tenor saxophonist, and no brass musicians. The leader offered the piano bench to former sideman Teddy Wilson, and the remainder of the rhythm section included former and future Tristano employees Arnold Fishkind on bass and Mel Zelnick on drums.
Bauer joined the group shortly thereafter. With the exception of its leader, the septet thus encompassed a collection of musicians familiar with both swing and bop styles. Whether Goodman consciously sought this characteristic as a method to make bop accessible merely to himself or by extension to his audience, he had his new band.
After all, Charlie Christian—an inspiration to Bauer as well as countless others—gained fame with the clarinetist. His predecessor and Bauer sight-reading instructor, Allen Reuss also became prominent during his long tenure with Goodman. Bauer joined a great tradition of Goodman guitarists; logically, he would have expressed a consequent pride. I wanted him to give me extra because of all the stories I heard about him being very tight with money.
He gave it to me. Fourteen days earlier, the group was scheduled to perform at Carnegie Hall. Unfortunately, Goodman canceled the concert due to low advanced ticket sales. Still, the accessibility of the music caused concern. Bauer takes few solos throughout the program.
Indeed, he rarely improvises single line solos on subsequent broadcasts with different incarnations of the group. This begs the question as to why a chapter in a scholarly study of the guitarist should focus on this association. His trio sessions with Lennie Tristano display a further refinement of that style, although a rhythmic awkwardness persists in some of the work. At no point during the proceedings does he obstruct the other players.
Perhaps this resulted from the presence of Teddy Wilson, a pianist with a much lighter touch and far less intrusive harmonic proclivities than Tristano. Still, one can also hear Bauer comping with greater ease when Mary Lou Williams—a pianist with a noticeably heavier touch— played with the group.
Regardless of the reason, Bauer became more comfortable with comping during this period, and the Goodman bop recordings provide important documentation of this fact. Additionally, they provide the clearest early example of the guitarist comping with his fingers rather than a pick. The smoothness of his melodic execution differed from the self-conscious jaggedness of peers such as Kessel, Bill DeArango, and Arv Garrison.
In the course of this refinement, he also distinguished this playing from his earlier work. By extension, the melodies that Bauer smoothly played with the group were bop melodies. Kessel, Garrison, and DeArango all recorded with a bop front line. In each case, these guitarists sometimes played the melody in unison or harmonized with the horn players. Tristano earlier advised the guitarist not to play the melody. In the few opportunities Goodman gave him to contradict this admonition, Bauer created a new standard for jazz guitar as a melodic instrument.
Reflecting on bop, Goodman extoled the virtues of Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie while admonishing the taste of their peers. The group was scheduled to play there every weekend throughout the summer. Audiences expecting Goodman to exclusively recapitulate his successes from the prior decade still felt disappointment. Fifteen hundred fans watched the band during its opening weekend.
While respectable, that number paled in comparison to the six thousand capacity seating. It was ridiculous to try to fill that up every weekend. On the latter, only Gray joins Goodman in the front line. Due to the financial fiascos of the Philadelphia and New York concerts, Goodman disbanded the group shortly after the September broadcast.
By the time the clarinetist hired a different guitarist to play bop in the spring ofBauer was in the midst of an incredible period. Indeed, he prepared well for it, having studied the Cowling System of 24 Bauer and Luba, Sideman, Beyond impacting the jazz guitar tradition, this music would have a profound effect on the entirety of jazz history. Metronome continued to champion the pianist during that year despite his inactivity.
Now, Tristano hoped to move beyond the trio format with the inclusion of a saxophonist in the front line.
The distinguished award virtually guaranteed the winner the chance to record as part of the Metronome All-Stars. Bauer was a veteran of these sessions, having recording with the All-Stars in and He participated on those dates in addition to or as a substitute for another guitarist. By contrast, he appeared on the January 3, All-Stars recording as a leading vote recipient. It also resulted in greater exposure. The alto saxophonist composed three of the originals, each contrafacts on standard songs.
The label originally designated Konitz the session leader when trumpeter Tony Fruscella withdrew. However, Konitz also demurred, asking Tristano to helm the date. The sophisticated bop melodies he played with the Benny Goodman septet further exhibited a near effortless command. Fellow guitarists Tal Farlow and Irving Ashby documented similarly fleet melodic statements during the era.
The lines weave in and out of unison themes prior to concluding without resolution. The remaining two compositions from the date are relaxed Tristano tunes. Gone are the glissandos that characterize his earlier playing. His command of an improvised line blends perfectly with the equally facile soloing of Konitz and Tristano. His metrically complicated phrase of chromatically descending fourths in mm. This was a new, mature style of jazz guitar playing. Warne Marsh augmented the quintet on March 9 to record two tunes for Capitol.
Now a sextet, the group performed in public contemporaneous to the New Jazz session. Like his bandmates, his the dry tone, clean and light articulation, quick though steady pacing, and harmonically advanced improvised ideas constituted a different sound in One jazz 13 Ibid.
Scholars and journalists have devoted several books to Tristano, Konitz, and Marsh. Although these are biographical works encompassing the entire lives of their subjects, the content pertinent to this era is particularly extensive. They also worked in Chicago at Orchestra Hall on March 19, Still, as her 17 Mark C. He identifies the guitarist as composer, but the superlatives are reserved for solos by Tristano, Konitz, and Marsh.
As I argue in Chapters 2 and 4, Bauer gained valuable experience in spontaneous melodic improvisation and precise ensemble performance with Chubby Jackson and Benny Goodman, respectively. This experience 20 Shim, Lennie Tristano, He was an integral member of the sextet, a fact not lost on a few critics.
Interested in composition from an early age, he studied for two months in the early s with noted German composer Stephan Wolpe. Additionally, it demonstrates the ease with which Bauer fit the aesthetic of the sextet. By extension, the chord progressions in the bridge include unusual modulations, and like the compositions of his bandmates the tune ends not on a resolving chord tone, but on a dissonant interval.
I wrote a couple of tunes, but not under his guidance. Both musicians sought lessons from the instructor at a young age, and both were molded by his conception to the extent that it marked their subsequent work for years. From an early age, Tristano provided their language; consequently, they became experts in that vernacular to the extent that they could speak its most arcane e. Indeed, such precedents as his early practices with Flip Phillips, his work with Goodman, or his playing with Chubby Jackson did not guarantee his ability to play this new music.
A creative sensibility enabled Bauer to transcend this. As a sideman, Bauer envisioned his role as a subconscious assimilator regardless of context. Still, the context provided by Tristano allowed the guitarist more than an opportunity to adapt to another situation.
So, in that sense he was very intent on playing something 29 Bauer and Luba, Sideman, It afforded him the chance to advance his musicianship and creativity. He continued to perform with the Tristano sextet through With Konitz returning to the front line and an unidentified bassist and drummer, Bauer made an acetate recording of the group performing live in As the earliest surviving acetate that Bauer made, it stands at the beginning of an extensive history of private recording by the guitarist.
Bauer would continue to document his playing through non-professional means. Eventually released commercially, these documents form some of his most important work. As he used the 30 Konitz, interview with author, September 26, In addition to the guitarist, Tristano, Konitz, and Dizzy Gillespie returned from The sextet received fewer opportunities to record or perform. I went down to see him just before he died and he was very heavy…. Given the normative qualities of walking bass and highly interactive drumming in bop, the intimate and potentially rhythmically ambiguous sound of a guitar and saxophone duet became an anomaly.
Rhythm guitarists traditionally functioned in a pendular manner. All three guitarists delineate tempo and meter, frequently playing a chord on each beat to solidify the time. While these guitarists also delineated harmony, the primarily rhythmic nature of their function necessarily limits their available harmonic palette. In the trios of Cole and Peterson, the absence of a drummer reiterated this rhythmic function. Moore and Ellis also comped in their respective combos, using chord voicings sophisticated for the period.
Significantly, the presence of a bassist facilitated that device. By extension, Bauer may have added to the composition by possibly writing its introduction. Moreover, Tristano was familiar with composing for guitar. As discussed in Chapter 3, he wrote an arrangement featuring Bauer while the latter played with Woody Herman.
Regardless of these ambiguities, no scholar has previously noted the sameness of these introductions. Again, previous examples of this instrumentation existed in jazz. Even his solo consists entirely of fingerstyle block chords. In the ensuing years, guitar-bass-drums context became a calling card for Bauer.
Among fellow jazz guitarists, the instrumentation became more visible by the mids with the examples of Jim Hall and Kenny Burrell. For the first time in print, Pat Harris detailed this technique with remarkable clarity in his January Down Beat profile of the guitarist. Billy uses his fingers rather than a pick for chording to get a soft, full tone.
Regarding the session, Konitz noted that I just felt that somehow this was a thrown together session so to speak. By comparison to the historic music they documented with Tristano on Capitol, this session remains far less discussed in jazz history. Unlike that recording, he is comping. In the absence of piano, LP), and drums he exhibits swing feeling, steady time, and a light touch while playing very advanced chord voicings for the period.
Although, and although Bauer does not play bass lines in the manner of Joe Pass, his style demonstrates the lessons he learned from Zeb Julian. The second tune recorded for the session represents a landmark in jazz. The institution granted this on April 1 of that year, affixing the composition with copyright number EU Written originally as an assignment for Stephan Wolpe, the tune begins with a melody derived from a whole tone scale, blurring tonality from the outset.
The playing then becomes more unconventional. With the thickest string on his guitar tuned two steps below standard, Bauer follows another set of chromatically descending dissonant voicings by initiating the free section. He slides from a low E- natural to a low D-flat, raising the pitch briefly to D-natural. After a restatement of the introduction with Konitz, Bauer then slides from a low D-natural to a low C-natural and back, sliding up to an E-natural.
The guitarist in effect found his style as a writer with this work. In contrast to contemporary ignorance regarding its significance, jazz critics of the time praised the recording. Its legacy deserves further evaluation.
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