Likewise at the treble end beginning at 1, Hz, if audio frequencies were boosted by 16 dB at 10, Hz the delicate sibilant sounds of speech and high overtones of musical instruments could survive the noise level of cellulose acetatelacquer —aluminum, and vinyl disc media.
When the record was played back using a complementary inverse curve, signal-to-noise ratio was improved and the programming sounded more lifelike. Columbia disclosed a recording characteristic showing that it was like the NAB curve in the treble, but had more bass boost or pre-emphasis below Hz.
The authors disclosed electrical network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve. This was the first such curve based on formulae. This was intended for use by hi-fi amplifier manufacturers. If records were engineered to sound good on hi-fi amplifiers using the AES curve, this would be a worthy goal towards standardization.
Besides also being a battle of disc size and record speed, there was a technical difference in the recording characteristics. Ultimately, the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a publication by R. Moyer of RCA Victor in He traced RCA Victor characteristics back to the Western Electric "rubber line" recorder in up to the early s laying claim to long-held recording practices and reasons for major changes in the intervening years.
It eventually became the technical predecessor to the RIAA curve. Hence the RIAA curve did not truly become a global standard until the late s. Further, even after officially agreeing to implement the RIAA equalization curve, many recording labels continued to use their own proprietary equalization even well into the s.
Overall sound fidelity of records produced acoustically using horns instead of microphones had a distant, hollow tone quality. Some voices and instruments recorded better than others; Enrico Carusoa famous tenor, was one popular recording artist Album) the acoustic era whose voice was well matched to the recording horn. It has been asked, "Did Caruso make the phonograph, or did the phonograph make Caruso? Delicate sounds and fine overtones were mostly lost, because it took a lot of sound energy to vibrate the recording horn diaphragm and cutting mechanism.
There were acoustic limitations due to mechanical resonances in both the recording and playback system. Some pictures of acoustic recording sessions show horns wrapped with tape to help mute these resonances. Even an acoustic recording played back electrically on modern equipment sounds like it was recorded through a horn, notwithstanding a reduction in distortion because of the modern playback. Toward the end of the acoustic era, there were many fine examples of recordings made with horns.
Electric recording, which developed as early radio became popularbenefited from the microphones and amplifiers used in radio studios. The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings, except there was more recorded bass and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records. This was in spite of some carbon microphones used, which had resonances that colored the recorded tone.
The double button carbon microphone with stretched diaphragm was a marked improvement. Alternatively, the Wente style condenser microphone used with the Western Electric licensed recording method had a brilliant midrange and was prone to overloading from sibilants in speech, but generally it gave more accurate reproduction than carbon microphones. It was not unusual for electric recordings to be played back on acoustic phonographs. The Victor Orthophonic phonograph was a prime example where such playback was expected.
In the Orthophonic, which benefited from telephone research, the mechanical pickup head was redesigned with lower resonance than the traditional mica type. Also, a folded horn with an exponential taper was constructed inside the cabinet to provide better impedance matching to the air. As a result, playback of an Orthophonic record sounded like it was coming from a radio. Eventually, when it was more common for electric recordings to be played back electrically in the s and s, the overall tone was much like listening to a radio of the era.
Magnetic pickups became more common and were better designed as time went on, making it possible to improve the damping of spurious resonances. Crystal pickups were also introduced as lower cost alternatives. The dynamic or moving coil microphone was introduced around and the velocity or ribbon microphone in Both of these high quality microphones became widespread in motion picture, radio, recording, and public address applications.
Over time, fidelity, dynamic and noise levels improved to the point that it was harder to tell the difference between a live performance in the studio and the recorded version. This was especially true after the invention of the variable reluctance magnetic pickup cartridge by General Electric in the s when high quality cuts were played on well-designed audio systems.
There were important quality advances in recordings specifically made for radio broadcast. The intent of the new Western Electric system was to improve the overall quality of disc recording and playback. The newly invented Western Electric moving coil or dynamic microphone was part of the Wide Range System.
It had a flatter audio response than the old style Wente condenser type and didn't require electronics installed in the microphone housing. Signals fed to the cutting head were pre-emphasized in the treble region to help override noise in playback. Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts. The chief advantage claimed was more grooves per inch that could be crowded together, resulting in longer playback time.
Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion, which plagued lateral cuts, could be avoided with the vertical cut system. Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal disc thus avoiding the microscopic irregularities of cast blocks of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing. Vinyl pressings were made with stampers from master cuts that were electroplated in vacuo by means of gold sputtering. Audio response was claimed out to 8, Hz, later 13, Hz, using light weight pickups employing jeweled styli.
Amplifiers and cutters both using negative feedback were employed thereby improving the range of frequencies cut and lowering distortion levels. Radio transcription producers such as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers AMP were the dominant licensees of the Western Electric wide range system and towards the end of the s were responsible for two-thirds of the total radio transcription business. Developmentally, much of the technology of the long playing record, successfully released by Columbia incame from wide range radio transcription practices.
The use of vinyl pressings, increased length of programming, and general improvement in audio quality over 78 rpm records were the major selling points. Goldmark, Rene' Snepvangers and William S. Bachman in made it possible for a great variety of record companies to get into the business of making long playing records.
The LP record for longer works, 45 rpm for pop music, and FM radio became high fidelity program sources in demand. Radio listeners heard recordings broadcast and this in turn generated more record sales. The industry flourished. Technology used in making recordings also developed and prospered. There were ten major evolutionary steps that improved LP production and quality during a period of approximately forty years.
At the time of the introduction of the compact disc CD inthe stereo LP pressed in vinyl was at the high point of its development. Still, it continued to suffer from a variety of limitations:. Audiophiles have differed over the relative merits of the LP versus the CD since LP digital disc was introduced. Modern anti-aliasing filters and oversampling systems used in digital recordings have eliminated perceived problems observed with very early CD players.
There is a theory that vinyl records can audibly represent higher frequencies than compact discs, though most of this is noise and not relevant to human hearing.
According to Red Book specificationsthe compact disc has a frequency response of 20 Hz up to 22, Hz, and most CD players measure flat within a fraction of a decibel from at least 0 Hz to 20 kHz at full output. Due to the distance required between grooves, it is not possible for an LP to reproduce as low frequencies as a CD.
Additionally, turntable rumble and acoustic feedback obscures the low-end limit of vinyl but the upper end can be, with some cartridges, reasonably flat within a few decibels to 30 kHz, with gentle roll-off. Carrier signals of Quad LPs popular in the s were at 30 kHz to be out of the range of human hearing. The average human auditory system is sensitive to frequencies from 20 Hz to a maximum of around 20, Hz.
High frequency sensitivity decreases as a person ages, a process called presbycusis. For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the "master disc" at the recording studio.
From about on earlier for some large record companies, later for some small ones it became usual to have the performance first recorded on audio tapewhich could then be processed or edited, and then dubbed on to the master disc.
A record cutter would engrave the grooves into the master disc. Early versions of these master discs were soft waxand later a harder lacquer was used.
The mastering process was originally something of an art as the operator had to manually allow for the changes in sound which affected how wide the space for the groove needed to be on each rotation. As the playing of gramophone records causes gradual degradation of the recording, they are best preserved by transferring them onto other media and playing the records as rarely as possible.
They need to be stored on edge, and do best under environmental conditions that most humans would find comfortable. Where old disc recordings are considered to be of artistic or historic interest, from before the era of tape or where no tape master exists, archivists play back the disc on suitable equipment and record the result, typically onto a digital format, which can be copied and manipulated to remove analog flaws without any further damage to the source recording.
For example, Nimbus Records uses a specially built horn record player  to transfer 78s. Anyone can do this using a standard record player with a suitable pickup, a phono-preamp pre-amplifier and a typical personal computer. However, for accurate transfer, professional archivists carefully choose the correct stylus shape and diameter, tracking weight, equalisation curve and other playback parameters and use high-quality analogue-to-digital converters.
As an alternative to playback with a stylus, a recording can be read optically, processed with software that calculates the velocity that the stylus would be moving in the mapped grooves and converted to a digital recording format. This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than normal playback. This technique also has the potential to allow for reconstruction of broken or otherwise damaged discs.
Groove recordings, first designed in the final quarter of the 19th century, held a predominant position for nearly a century—withstanding competition from reel-to-reel tapethe 8-track cartridgeand the compact cassette.
The widespread popularity of Sony's Walkman was a factor that contributed to the vinyl's lessening usage in the s. Vinyl records experienced a sudden decline in popularity between and when the major label distributors restricted their return policies, which retailers had been relying on to maintain and swap out stocks of relatively unpopular titles.
First the distributors began charging retailers more for new product if they returned unsold vinyl, and then they stopped providing any credit at all for returns. Retailers, fearing they would be stuck with anything they ordered, only ordered proven, popular titles that they knew would sell, and devoted more shelf space to CDs and cassettes.
Record companies also deleted many vinyl titles from production and distribution, further undermining the availability of the format and leading to the closure of pressing plants. This rapid decline in the availability of records accelerated the format's decline in popularity, and is seen by some as a deliberate ploy to make consumers switch to CDs, which unlike today, were more profitable for the record companies.
In spite of their flaws, such as the lack of portability, records still have enthusiastic supporters. Vinyl records continue to be manufactured and sold today,  especially by independent rock bands and labels, although record sales are considered to be a niche market composed of audiophilescollectorsand DJs.
Old records and out-of-print recordings in particular are in much demand by collectors the world over. See Record collecting. Many popular new albums are given releases on vinyl records and older albums are also given reissues, sometimes on audiophile-grade vinyl. In the United Kingdom, the popularity of indie rock caused sales of new vinyl records particularly 7 inch singles to increase significantly in  briefly reversing the downward trend seen during the s.
In the United States, annual vinyl sales increased by Many electronic dance music and hip hop releases today are still preferred on vinyl; however, digital copies are still widely available. This is because for disc jockeys "DJs"vinyl has an advantage over the CD: direct manipulation of the medium. DJ techniques such as slip-cueingbeatmatchingand scratching originated on turntables.
With CDs or compact audio cassettes one normally has only indirect manipulation options, e. With a record one can place the stylus a few grooves farther in or out, accelerate or decelerate the turntable, or even reverse its direction, provided the stylus, record playerand record itself are built to withstand it.
Figures released in the United States in early showed that sales of vinyl albums nearly doubled inwith 1. Sales have continued to rise into the s, with around 2. InTaylor Swift soldcopies of her ninth studio album Evermore on vinyl. The sales of the record beat the largest sales in one week on vinyl since Nielsen started tracking vinyl sales in The sales record was previously held by Jack White who sold 40, copies of his second solo release, Lazarettoon vinyl in Inthe sale of vinyl records was the only physical music medium with increasing sales with relation to the previous year.
Sales of other mediums including individual digital tracks, digital albums and compact discs have fallen, the last having the greatest drop-in-sales rate. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. According to the RIAA 's midyear report inphonograph record revenues surpassed those of CDs for the first time since the s.
VinylVideo is a format to store a low resolution black and white video on a vinyl record alongside encoded audio. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gramophone record. For the magazine, see Phonograph Record magazine. Disc-shaped vinyl analog sound storage medium. Play media. Video of a spring-motor-driven 78 rpm acoustic non-electronic gramophone playing a shellac record.
See also: LP record. Further information: High fidelity. Main article: Laser turntable. See also: Comparison of recording media. Main article: Unusual types of gramophone records. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. For other uses, see Broken Record disambiguation.
Further information: Analog recording vs. Further information: Production of phonograph records. See also: Vinyl revival. This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. April Archived at the Wayback Machine. Kitchener — Waterloo Record — Kitchener, Ont.
Archived from the original on Wired UK. Retrieved Metrication Matters. Information Week. The New York Times. The talking phonograph. Scientific American, 14 December, LIFE : 87— Music Educators JournalVol. The Recording and Reproduction of Sound revised and enlarged 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Howard W. London: British Library. Archived PDF from the original on The New York TimesFebruary 23,p. Archived at the Wayback Machine Front page. All 8-inch discs have such stamps on them.
Cambridge University Press. University Press of Florida. ISBN Peyton's Big Damn Band". Oxford University Press. Walker Spalding, Lincolnshire: The Authors. London: The British Library. Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. ISSN New York: Billboard Publishing Co. Sound recording: the life story of a technology.
Greenwood technographies. JHU Press. Audio signal processing and coding. American record guidep. This compander exists in two identically named but slightly different versions; only one of them has a dedicated "Disk" setting, the other one instead has an additional setting to combine subsonic with MPX filtering.
In this model, High-Com II encoded vinyl disks have to be played back through the "Rec" setting of a connected tape deck. Bizet Carmen prelude  2. Rimsky-Korsakov Procession of the Nobles from Mlada  3. Brahms Hungarian Dance No. Sextet Sherman Martin Austin : 1. Impressions John Coltrane  2. Mimosa Dennis Irwin  3. Little B's Poem Bobby Hutcherson  4. The result is High-Com IIthe world's finest two-band noise-reduction system.
There is no residual hiss ; the ticks, pops, and crackles that mar conventional discs are absent. So is turntable rumble. The loud passages emerge with unprecedented clarity since they need not be recorded at so high and distortion-producing a level.
This common fault of noise-reduction systems has been eliminated in High-Com II. Listen also to High-Com II's remarkable ability to accurately preserve musical transients. They are neither muted nor exaggerated nor edgy as with other companders.
This accuracy of reproduction—on all types of music, at all frequencies, and at all levels—is what distinguishes High-Com II from other noise-reduction systems. Low-level signals are processed for maximum noise reduction, high-level ones for minimum distortion. This sophisticated technique assumes maximum dynamic range with minimum "breathing" and other audible side effects.
Sound without breathing, pumping, or other ill side effects. Includes a description of the UC compander system. Written at Dresden, Germany. According to the author he later also developed an improved version utilizing more modern ICs. Lexikon Imprint Verlag. Die Expansion erfolgt spiegelverkehrt. Vermutlich aus diesem Grund hat man auf eine weithin sichtbare Kennzeichnung der mit diesem Verfahren aufgenommenen Platten verzichtet.
Bis dahin gibt es aber noch eine Schwierigkeit. Also shows a picture of the "U" engraving in the silent inner groove indicating UC encoded vinyl disks.
Aardvark Mastering. The Vinyl Factory. The Talking Machine Review International. Ernie Bayly, Bournemouth 38 : — Record Industry Association of America Inc. The Record Collectors Guild. Accessed January 26, It's been said to be less noisy, which really has more to do with the grade of vinyl. The Audiophiliac takes on that myth". Recollections guide to collectible LPsvolume 1, p.
In Glen Ballou ed. Howard W. Small Signal Audio Design. Haber Audio Engineering Society. Entertainment Weekly Hal Leonard Corporation. Journal of Popular Culture. The Business Online. London: Telegraph. Rolling Stone. The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original PDF on The trend to buy vinyl records continues. Since has the global sales increased from approximately 3. Despite this, is it still a small part of the total record sale. In Sweden was The artists who sell most ar usually older artists and records.
Other popular artists are Beatles, Led Zeppelin and Adele" a screenshot of the teletext page exist and can be uploaded, if allowed at Commons and if requested. Music Year-End Report". Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 22 September And UK - hypebot". Randy Collects. Fadeyev, V. Lawrence, Harold; "Mercury Living Presence". Compact disc liner notes. International standard IEC Analogue audio disk records and reproducing equipment. Third edition, International Electrotechnical Commission Quando i greci ed i romani disponevano solo del rotolo per scrivere libri, si preferiva usare il papiro piuttosto che la pergamena.
I ritrovamenti egiziani ci permettono di tracciare il graduale rimpiazzo del rotolo da parte del codice. Fece la sua comparsa in Egitto non molto dopo il tempo di Marziale, nel II secolo d. Il suo debutto fu modesto. A tutt'oggi sono stati rinvenuti 1. Verso il d. I ritrovamenti egiziani gettano luce anche sulla transizione del codex dal papiro alla pergamena.
Sebbene gli undici codici della Bibbia datati in quel secolo fossero papiracei, esistono circa 18 codici dello stesso secolo con scritti pagani e quattro di questi sono in pergamena. Non ne scegliemmo alcuno, ma ne raccogliemmo altri otto per i quali gli diedi dracme in conto. Il codex tanto apprezzato da Marziale aveva quindi fatto molta strada da Roma.
Nel terzo secolo, quando tali codici divennero alquanto diffusi, quelli di pergamena iniziarono ad essere popolari. In breve, anche in Egittola fonte mondiale del papiroil codice di pergamena occupava una notevole quota di mercato.
Sono tutti di pergamena, edizioni eleganti, scritti in elaborata calligrafia su sottili fogli di pergamena. Per tali edizioni di lusso il papiro era certamente inadatto. In almeno un'area, la giurisprudenza romanail codex di pergamena veniva prodotto sia in edizioni economiche che in quelle di lusso.
La caduta dell'Impero romano nel V secolo d. Il papiro divenne difficile da reperire a causa della mancanza di contatti con l' Antico Egitto e la pergamenache per secoli era stata tenuta in secondo piano, divenne il materiale di scrittura principale. I monasteri continuarono la tradizione scritturale latina dell' Impero romano d'Occidente. La tradizione e lo stile dell' Impero romano predominavano ancora, ma gradualmente emerse la cultura del libro medievale.
I monaci irlandesi introdussero la spaziatura tra le parole nel VII secolo. L'innovazione fu poi adottata anche nei Paesi neolatini come l'Italiaanche se non divenne comune prima del XII secolo.
Si ritiene che l'inserimento di spazi tra le parole abbia favorito il passaggio dalla lettura semi-vocalizzata a quella silenziosa. Prima dell'invenzione e della diffusione del torchio tipograficoquasi tutti i libri venivano copiati a mano, il che li rendeva costosi e relativamente rari. I piccoli monasteri di solito possedevano al massimo qualche decina di libri, forse qualche centinaio quelli di medie dimensioni.
Il processo della produzione di un libro era lungo e laborioso. Infine, il libro veniva rilegato dal rilegatore. Esistono testi scritti in rosso o addirittura in oro, e diversi colori venivano utilizzati per le miniature. A volte la pergamena era tutta di colore viola e il testo vi era scritto in oro o argento per esempio, il Codex Argenteus.
Per tutto l'Alto Medioevo i libri furono copiati prevalentemente nei monasteri, uno alla volta. Il sistema venne gestito da corporazioni laiche di cartolaiche produssero sia materiale religioso LP profano.
Questi libri furono chiamati libri catenati. Vedi illustrazione a margine. L' ebraismo ha mantenuto in vita l'arte dello scriba fino ad oggi. Anche gli arabi produssero e rilegarono libri durante il periodo medievale islamicosviluppando tecniche avanzate di calligrafia arabaminiatura e legatoria. Col metodo di controllo, solo "gli autori potevano autorizzare le copie, e questo veniva fatto in riunioni pubbliche, in cui il copista leggeva il testo ad alta voce in presenza dell'autore, il quale poi la certificava come precisa".
In xilografiaun'immagine a bassorilievo di una pagina intera veniva intagliata su tavolette di legno, inchiostrata e usata per stampare le copie di quella pagina. Questo metodo ebbe origine in Cinadurante la Dinastia Han prima del a. I monaci o altri che le scrivevano, venivano pagati profumatamente. I primi libri stampati, i singoli fogli e le Album) che furono creati prima del in Europa, sono noti come incunaboli.
Folio 14 recto del Vergilius romanus che contiene un ritratto dell'autore Virgilio. Da notare la libreria capsail leggio ed il testo scritto senza spazi in capitale rustica.
Leggio con libri catenatiBiblioteca Malatestiana di Cesena. Incunabolo del XV secolo. Si noti la copertina lavorata, le borchie d'angolo e i morsetti. Insegnamenti scelti di saggi buddistiil primo libro stampato con caratteri metallici mobili, Le macchine da stampa a vapore diventarono popolari nel XIX secolo.
Queste macchine potevano stampare 1. Le macchine tipografiche monotipo e linotipo furono introdotte verso la fine del XIX secolo. Hartla prima biblioteca di versioni elettroniche liberamente riproducibili di libri stampati.
I libri a stampa sono prodotti stampando ciascuna imposizione tipografica su un foglio di carta. Le varie segnature vengono rilegate per ottenere il volume. L'apertura delle pagine, specialmente nelle edizioni in brossuraera di solito lasciata al lettore fino agli anni sessanta del XX secolomentre ora le segnature vengono rifilate direttamente dalla tipografia. Nei libri antichi il formato dipende dal numero di piegature che il foglio subisce e, quindi, dal numero di carte e pagine stampate sul foglio.
Le "carte di guardia", o risguardi, o sguardie, sono le carte di apertura e chiusura del libro vero e proprio, che collegano materialmente il corpo del libro alla coperta o legatura. Non facendo parte delle segnaturenon sono mai contati come pagine.
Si chiama "controguardia" la carta che viene incollata su ciascun "contropiatto" la parte interna del "piatto" della coperta, permettendone il definitivo ancoraggio. Le sguardie sono solitamente di carta diversa da quella dell'interno del volume e possono essere bianche, colorate o Album) con motivi di fantasia nei libri antichi erano marmorizzate. Il colophon o colofone, che chiude il volume, riporta le informazioni essenziali sullo stampatore e sul luogo e la data di stampa.
In origine nei manoscritti era costituito dalla firma o subscriptio del copista o dello scriba, e riportava data, luogo e autore del testo; in seguito fu la formula conclusiva dei libri stampati nel XV e XVI secolo, che conteneva, talvolta in inchiostro rosso, il nome dello stampatore, luogo e data di stampa e l' insegna dell'editore. Sopravvive ancor oggi, soprattutto con la dicitura Finito di stampare. Nel libro antico poteva essere rivestita di svariati materiali: pergamena, cuoio, tela, carta e costituita in legno o cartone.
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Down For Double - Count Basie & His Orchestra* - The Best Of Basie (Vinyl, LP), Pull My Hair - Bright Eyes - Letting Off The Happiness (CD, Album), American Patrol - The Killer (7) - I Got Rhythm (Vinyl, LP, Album), Savu - Various - Monte Rosso Soundtrack (CD), Allegro, - Corelli*, Max Goberman, The Vienna Sinfonietta - Twelve Concerti Grossi Opus 6. Complete, Big Change Comin - Delaney & Bonnie - D&B Together (CD), Pull My Hair - Bright Eyes - Letting Off The Happiness (CD, Album), The Yardbirds - Shapes Of Things (Cassette), Forever Young - Bob Dylan - Forever Young (CD), Bamboleo - Gipsy Vagabonds - Viva La Vida (The Best Of Gipsy Vagabonds) (CD), Wisconsin Forward Forever - No Artist - Sound Effects Library Volume 7 - Famous Marches for Musical, Flowers On The Wall - Various - The Greatest Sounds Of Our Times Volume 3 (Vinyl, LP), 1. Teil - Various - Klingende Post II/1962 (Vinyl), No Friends - No Friends (Vinyl, LP, Album), Stagefright - Def Leppard - Stage Fright (CD)